Home Random Page



Why is Mars One Mission feasible?

Grammar and Vocabulary 3


Research Paper Writing: aims and results


A. Expressing aims


Key word Useful phrases Comment
goal to accomplish, achieve a goal; to have smth as a goal  
intention with the intention of Ving; have no intention of Ving/to V verb: to intend to do smth
motive motive for Ving general noun: motivation
objective to meet, achieve objectives; main/primary objective what you plan to do
priority top priority; to set/establish/identify priorities a list of important things
purpose for the purpose of Ving on purpose = deliberately
strategy to develop, follow, plan a strategy detailed plan for success
target to achieve, reach a target level or situation you want to achieve
aim to achieve /fulfill your aims the thing that you hope to achieve by doing something


B. Developing ideas


Key word Useful phrases Comment
hypothesis to be based on a hypothesis; to formulate, to confirm a hypothesis plural form: hypotheses
research to do, conduct, carry out research; research on/into uncountable (no “a” article, no plural form: Her latest work confirms the findings of earlier researches.)
definition a clear definition; to broaden/widen a definition verb: to define
method an effective /efficient method; to apply, develop, provide, use a method  
criteria to meet, fulfill criteria the plural form of criterion is criteria
application practical application  
contribution to make a contribution to smth; a great, important, significant, useful contribution verb: to contribute
problem to solve a problem  
issue to raise an issue; a big, controversial issue about/around  
challenge to face a challenge adjective: challenging; verb: to challenge



C. Analyzing results


Academic texts often include sections which deal with the analysis of data. In analyzing a controversial issue, the writer may need to come to / reach a conclusion about the advantages and disadvantages of a particular course of action. The writer may, for instance, conclude that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks or vice versa. An analysis may be a matter of weighing up both sides of an argument, taking into account all the relevant aspects of the issue and discussing all the points raised by the research. When analyzing the results of a scientific experiment, the writer is likely to need to take into consideration a range of variables. In their analysis scientists try to deduce as much as they can from their data, drawing conclusions that are soundly based on their results.


Task 8. Match a key phrase from the text above with its explanation.


Key words Explanation
course of action (1) (a) are of more importance than
to outweigh (2) (b) completely, firmly
drawbacks (3) (c) consider
to weigh up (4) (d) disadvantages
relevant aspects (5) (e) idea, opinion or piece of information that has been presented in relation to the topic
points (6) (f) important parts, features (of a problem or situation)
variables (7) (g) number, amount or aspect of a situation which can change
to deduce (8) (h) reach an answer by thinking carefully about the known facts
soundly (9) (i) think carefully about
to take into account (10) (j) way of doing something


Task 9. Here are some other sentences relating to analyses. Translate them into Russian using explanations in brackets.


  1. The survey provided some useful insights into the problem. [points that help us to understand more clearly]
  2. The results point to an interesting trend. [show, indicate]
  3. On the basis of the application data we would predict continuing interest of perspective students in astrophysics. [say something will happen in the future]
  4. We found that women constitute 70% of the workforce in the university. [account for]
  5. We began with a critical review of the scientific literature in the field. [giving opinions]
  6. We are reaching a critical period in terms of global climate change. [very important]
  7. The astronaut is in a critical condition. [serious]


Task 10. Complete the expressions with a word which can combine with all the words given.

  1. __________ moment / review / comments
  2. come to / draw / reach a __________
  3. come down on one / be in favor of one / see both __________ (s) of an argument


Task 11. Introduce your current research paper. Write in short about its aim and main ideas using phrases from sections A and B.


Writing 3


Technical feasibility


Task 13. No human has landed on Mars to this day. Why should Mars One succeed? Is it best to send unmanned space probes or a manned mission to find out about Mars? Write an essay concerning this topic.


Use the plan:

Paragraph 1: introduce the question and express your point of view (see Grammar 3 section A for useful phrases)

Paragraph 2: mention that the problem is controversial and present a few ideas that you do not support/disadvantages (see Grammar 3 section B for useful phrases)

Paragraph 3 (+/- 4): present ideas that you support/advantages, provide a few examples if possible (see Grammar 3 section B for useful phrases)

Paragraph 5: analyze the results and write a conclusion (see Grammar 3 section C for useful phrases)


Look through some ideas to help you build your own opinion. Do not plagiarize them!

For a manned mission Against
· humans would easily be able to outperform robotic explorers in precision and accuracy · humans are intelligent creatures – less time to analyze data · unmanned mission must be planned and programmed thoroughly a long time ahead – no possible changes on the way · unmanned missions do not inspire people · people want to gain popularity and fame · cost less money · a manned mission could contaminate Mars by introducing earthly microbes · we have a lot of information about Mars without human travelling there · harmful conditions would kill humans · limitation of food, water and other supplies · low gravity of Mars would affect humans’ organism · instant cosmic rays and radiation · instabilities of psychological state of isolated humans


Date: 2015-01-11; view: 193

<== previous page | next page ==>
Mission to Mars | Space Elevators
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2017 year. (0.009 sec.)