There are many species of fauna in the vast expanses of tundra, taiga and water-meadows, the numerous rivers and lakes. Scientists have registered 74 species of mammals on the territory of the region, more than 320 species of birds, 4 species of reptiles, 5 species of amphibian and over 40 species of fish.
In the tundra are the reindeer, polar fox, lemming and many species of birds. On the islands and mainland one finds the polar bear, and in the coastal waters, the Bay of Ob and other bays the sea hare, the ringed seal and the white whale. Further south in the tundra the wolf and the wolverine are common.
The animal world of the taiga is even richer: the squirrel, white hare, chipmunk and letyaga, as well as the brown bear, fox, marten, sable, lynx, weasel, Siberian pole cat, badger, wolf and wolverine. The pride of the taiga is the moose. The mole and musk-rat are widespread and there are many colonies of the water rat and the Asiatic beaver, which have survived in Malaya Sosva and Demyanka. The zone is also being energetically settled with imported American mink.
The taiga is full of birds. Here you will find the wood-grouse, hazel-grouse, black grouse, nutcracker, osprey, great grey owl, Tengmalm’s owl and pygmy owl and in marshes the willow grouse, crane and great snipe. The old beds of rivers and lakes are densely populated with ducks, snipes and gulls. The trumpeter swan nests here, as do the red-throated and black-throated loon and the red-necked sheldrake.
The forest-steppe is the home of the stoat and fox, the mountain hare and Siberian polecat, the steppe polecat, the badger, the musk-rat, the black grouse, the quail, the hazel-grouse and various species of water-fowl. The wild goat and moose are found here, and also their constant companion – the wolf.
Many of the animals in the Tyumen Region are hunted for commercial purposes. There is also a great deal of commercial fishing here. There is world-wide demand for the Siberian sturgeon, white salmon, muksun, peled (syrok), Siberian whitefish. Ide, dace, roach, pike, perch and crucian are popular on the local market.
► 1. The vegetation and wildlife of Siberia is very rich.
2. There are 320 species of mammals.
3. Island and mainland have the same meaning.
4. The pride of taiga is the hare.
5. Malaya Sosva is being energetically settled with imported American marten.
6. The forest-steppe is the home of various species of water-fowl.
7. The wolf lives everywhere.
8. The commercial fishing is very developed.
9. You can buy herring on the local markets.
5.19. Find the odd word out.
a) bay coast lake river
b) salmon whitefish snipe pike
c) rat sable lynx marten
d) black grouse mountain hair brown bear red fox
e) wild goat water rat great snipe wood-grouse
f) tundra meadow steppe taiga
5.20. Answer the following questions:
1. Can you name 4 types of the grouse and 3 types of the owl?
2. Where do polar bears live?
3. How many species of fish are registered?
4. What birds nest here?
5. Who inhabits the old beds of rivers?
6. What is the difference between the tundra fox and steppe fox?
7. Where can we see seals and whales?
8. Have you ever seen squirrels and chipmunks in the environment?
5.21. Fill in the table with the words from the text Siberia’s Fauna Is Amazingly Rich (activity 5.18).
Siberian reptiles and amphibia
5.22. Read the text below and do the exercises after each part.