Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
A hemorrhagic rash that extends over the entire body, including the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, is the hallmark
Figure 8-45Typhus nodule in the brain.
Figure 8-46Rocky Mountain spotted fever with a thrombosed vessel and vasculitis.
Figure 8-47The morphology of Candida infections. A, Severe candidiasis of the distal esophagus. B, Silver stain of esophageal candidiasis reveals the dense mat of Candida. C,
Characteristic pseudohyphae and blastoconidia (budding yeast) of Candida. (C, Courtesy of Dr. Dominick Cuvuoti, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical
School, Dallas, TX.)
Figure 8-48Mucicarmine stain of cryptococci (staining red) in a Virchow-Robin perivascular space of the brain (soap-bubble lesion).
Figure 8-49Aspergillus morphology. A, Invasive aspergillosis of the lung in a bone marrow transplant patient. B, Histologic sections from this case, stained with Gomori methenaminesilver
(GMS) stain, show septate hyphae with acute-angle branching, features consistent with Aspergillus. Occasionally, Aspergillus may demonstrate fruiting bodies (inset) when it grows
in areas that are well aerated (such as the upper respiratory tract).
Figure 8-50PAS stain of mucormycosis showing hyphae, which have an irregular width and right-angle branching, invading an artery wall.
Figure 8-51Life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum. (Drawn by Dr. Jeffrey Joseph, Beth Israel-Deaconess Hospital, Boston, MA.)
Figure 8-52P. falciparum-infected red cells marginating within a vein in cerebral malaria.
Figure 8-53Erythrocytes with Babesia, including the distinctive Maltese cross form. (Courtesy of Lynne Garcia, LSG and Associates, Santa Monica, CA.)
Figure 8-54Leishmania donovani parasites within the macrophages of a lymph node in visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar).
Figure 8-55Slender bloodstream parasites of African trypanosomiasis.
Figure 8-56Strongyloides hyperinfection in a patient treated with high-dose cortisone. A female, her eggs and rhabditoid larvae are in the duodenal crypts; filariform larvae are entering
the blood vessels and muscularis mucosa. (Courtesy of Dr. Franz C. Von Lichtenberg, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.)
Figure 8-57Portion of a cysticercus cyst.
Figure 8-58Coiled Trichinella spiralis larva within a skeletal muscle cell.
Figure 8-59Schistosome life cycle.
Figure 8-60Schistosoma mansoni granuloma with a miracidium-containing egg (center) and numerous, adjacent, scattered eosinophils.
Figure 8-61Pipe-stem fibrosis of the liver due to chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection.
Figure 8-62Massive edema and elephantiasis caused by filariasis of the leg. (Courtesy of Dr. Willy Piessens, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA.)
Figure 8-63Microfilaria-laden gravid female of Onchocerca volvulus in a subcutaneous fibrous nodule.
1. Arias E, Smith BL: Deaths: preliminary data for 2001. Natl Vital Stat Rep 51:1, 2003.
2. Murray CJ, Lopez AD: Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 349:1436, 1997.
3. Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, et al: A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 348:1953, 2003.
4. Drosten C, Gunther S, Preiser W, et al: Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 348:1967, 2003.
5. Weiss HA, Quigley MA, Hayes RJ: Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 14:2361, 2000.
6. Barbour AG, Fish D: The biological and social phenomenon of Lyme disease. Science 260:1610, 1993.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning
Workgroup. MMWR 49:5, 2000.
8. Uptain SM, Lindquist S: Prions as protein-based genetic elements. Annu Rev Microbiol 56:703, 2002.
9. Prusiner SB: Shattuck lecture: neurodegenerative diseases and prions. N Engl J Med 344:1516, 2001.
10. Walker D, Tumler JS: Emergence of the ehrlichioses as human health problems. Emerg Infect Dis 2:18, 1996.
11. Mims C: The Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease, 5th ed. San Diego, CA, Academic Press, 2001.
12. Neutra MR, Pringault E, Kraehenbuhl JP: Antigen sampling across epithelial barriers and induction of mucosal immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 14:275, 1996.
13. Berg RD: Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. Trends Microbiol 3:149, 1995.
14. Metcalf TG, Melnick JL, Estes MK: Environmental virology: from detection of virus in sewage and water by isolation to identification by molecular biology—a trip of over 50 years.
Annu Rev Microbiol 49:461, 1995.
15. Kaufmann SHE, Sher A, Ahmed R: Immunology of Infectious Diseases. Washington, DC, ASM Press, 2002.
16. Rossmann MG, et al: Cell recognition and entry by rhino- and enteroviruses. Virology 269:239, 2000.
17. Derfuss T, Meinl E: Herpesviral proteins regulating apoptosis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 269:257, 2002.
18. Kondo T, Suda T, Fukuyama H, Adachi M, Nagata S: Essential roles of the Fas ligand in the development of hepatitis. Nat Med 3:409, 1997.
19. Edwards RA, Olsen GJ, Maloy SR: Comparative genomics of closely related salmonellae. Trends Microbiol 10:94, 2002.
20. Novick RP, Muir TW: Virulence gene regulation by peptides in staphylococci and other Gram-positive bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol 2:40, 1999.
21. Mulvey MA: Adhesion and entry of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Cell Microbiol 4:257, 2002.
22. Seifert HS: Questions about gonococcal pilus phase- and antigenic variation. Mol Microbiol 21:433, 1996.
23. Ernst JD: Macrophage receptors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun 66:1277, 1998.
24. Anderson DM, Schneewind O: Type III machines of Gram-negative pathogens: injecting virulence factors into host cells and more. Curr Opin Microbiol 2:18, 1999.
25. Portnoy DA, Auerbuch V, Glomski IJ: The cell biology of Listeria monocytogenes infection: the intersection of bacterial pathogenesis and cell-mediated immunity. J Cell Biol
26. Pieters J, Gatfield J: Hijacking the host: survival of pathogenic mycobacteria inside macrophages. Trends Microbiol 10:142, 2002.
27. Triantafilou M, Triantafilou K: Lipopolysaccharide recognition: CD14, TLRs and the LPS-activation cluster. Trends Immunol 23:301, 2002.
28. Dobrovolskaia MA, Vogel SN: Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. Microbes Infect 4:903, 2002.
29. Amagai M, Matsuyoshi N, Wang ZH, Andl C, Stanley JR: Toxin in bullous impetigo and staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome targets desmoglein 1. Nat Med 6:1275, 2000.
30. Turton K, Chaddock JA, Acharya KR: Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility. Trends Biochem Sci 27:552, 2002.
31. Papageorgiou AC, Acharya KR: Microbial superantigens: from structure to function. Trends Microbiol 8:369, 2000.
32. Zhang JR, Hardham JM, Barbour AG, Norris SJ: Antigenic variation in Lyme disease borreliae by promiscuous recombination of VMP-like sequence cassettes. Cell 89:275, 1997.
33. Peschel A: How do bacteria resist human antimicrobial peptides? Trends Microbiol 10:179, 2002.
34. Hornef MW, Wick MJ, Rhen M, Normark S: Bacterial strategies for overcoming host innate and adaptive immune responses. Nat Immunol 3:1033, 2002.
35. Orange JS, Fassett MS, Koopman LA, Boyson JE, Strominger JL: Viral evasion of natural killer cells. Nat Immunol 3:1006, 2002.
36. Yewdell JW, Hill AB: Viral interference with antigen presentation. Nat Immunol 3:1019, 2002.
37. Furman MH, Ploegh HL: Lessons from viral manipulation of protein disposal pathways. J Clin Invest 110:875, 2002.
38. Lyczak JB, Cannon CL, Pier GB: Lung infections associated with cystic fibrosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 15:194, 2002.
39. Schalling M, Ekman M, Kaaya EE, Linde A, Biberfeld P: A role for a new herpes virus (KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat Med 1:707, 1995.
40. Clarke JR: Molecular diagnosis of HIV. Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2:233, 2002.
41. Cinque P, Bossolasco S, Lundkvist A: Molecular analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in viral diseases of the central nervous system. J Clin Virol 26:1, 2003.
42. Watson EJ, Templeton A, Russell I, et al: The accuracy and efficacy of screening tests for Chlamydia trachomatis: a systematic review. J Med Microbiol 51:1021, 2002.
43. Weiss R: Measles battle loses potent weapon. Science 258:546, 1992.
44. Moss WJ, Cutts F, Griffin DE: Implications of the HIV epidemic for control and eradication of measles. Clin Infect Dis 29:106, 1999.
45. Hutchins S, Markowitz L, Atkinson W, Swint E, Hadler S: Measles outbreaks in the United States, 1987 through 1990. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15:31, 1996.
46. Hsu EC, Dorig RE, Sarangi F, Marcil A, Iorio C, Richardson CD: Artificial mutations and natural variations in the CD46 molecules from human and monkey cells define regions
important for measles virus binding. J Virol 71:6144, 1997.
47. Tatsuo H, Ono N, Tanaka K, Yanagi Y: SLAM (CDw150) is a cellular receptor for measles virus. Nature 406:893, 2000.
48. Hahm B, Arbour N, Naniche D, Homann D, Manchester M, Oldstone MB: Measles virus infects and suppresses proliferation of T lymphocytes from transgenic mice bearing human
signaling lymphocytic activation molecule. J Virol 77:3505, 2003.
49. Sidorenko SP, Clark EA: The dual-function CD150 receptor subfamily: the viral attraction. Nat Immunol 4:19, 2003.
50. Norrby E, Kristensson K: Measles virus in the brain. Brain Res Bull 44:213, 1997.
51. van Loon FP, et al: Mumps surveillance: United States, 1988–1993. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 44:1, 1995.
52. Minor PD: The molecular biology of polioviruses vaccines. J Gen Virol 73:3065, 1992.
53. Dowdle WR, Birmingham ME: The biologic principles of poliovirus eradication. J Infect Dis 175 (Suppl 1):S286, 1997.
54. Hogle JM: Poliovirus cell entry: common structural themes in viral cell entry pathways. Annu Rev Microbiol 56:677, 2002.
55. Racaniello VR, Ren R: Poliovirus biology and pathogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 206:305, 1996.
56. Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, et al: The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 344:1807, 2001.
57. Petersen LR, Roehrig JT: West Nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis 7:611, 2001.
58. Petersen LR, Marfin AA: West Nile virus: a primer for the clinician. Ann Intern Med 137:173, 2002.
59. Chambers TJ, Halevy M, Nestorowicz A, Rice CM, Lustig S: West Nile virus envelope proteins: nucleotide sequence analysis of strains differing in mouse neuroinvasiveness. J Gen
Virol 79 (Pt 10):2375, 1998.
60. Wang X, et al: Epidermal growth factor receptor is a cellular receptor for human cytomegalovirus. Nature 424:456, 2003.
61. Stanbury L: Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infection and animal models for its study. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 179:15, 1992.
62. Jones C: Herpes simplex virus-1 and bovine herpesvirus-1 latency. Clin Microbiol Rev 16:79, 2003.
63. Steiner I: Human herpes viruses latent infection in the nervous system. Immunol Rev 152:157, 1996.
64. Keadle TL, Morris JL, Pepose JS, Stuart PM: CD4+(+) and CD8(+) cells are key participants in the development of recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis in mice. Microb Pathog 32:255,
65. Lehner PJ, Wilkinson GW: Cytomegalovirus: from evasion to suppression? Nat Immunol 2:993, 2001.
66. Sinzger C, Jahn G: Human cytomegalovirus cell tropism and pathogenesis. Intervirology 39:302, 1996.
67. Andrews DM, Andoniou CE, Granucci F, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P, Degli-Esposti MA: Infection of dendritic cells by murine cytomegalovirus induces functional paralysis. Nat Immunol
68. Benedict C, Norris P, Ware C: To kill or be killed: viral evasion of apoptosis. Nat Immunol 11:1013, 2002.
69. White CJ: Varicella-zoster virus vaccine. Clin Infect Dis 24:753, 1997.
70. Chisari F: Viruses, immunity and cancer: lessons from hepatitis B. Am J Path 156:1117, 2000.
71. Nathanson N, Ahmed R, Gonzalez-Scarano F, et al: Viral Pathogenesis. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 1997.
72. Thorley-Lawson DA: Epstein-Barr virus: exploiting the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 1:75, 2001.
73. Morra M, et al: X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome: a progressive immunodeficiency. Annu Rev Immunol 19:657, 2001.
74. Sixbey JW, Yao QY: Immunoglobulin A-induced shift of Epstein-Barr virus tissue tropism. Science 255:1578, 1992.
75. Foster TJ, McDevitt D: Surface-associated proteins of Staphylococcus aureus: their possible roles in virulence. FEMS Microbiol Lett 118:199, 1994.
76. Kaneko J, Ozawa T, Tomita T, Kamio Y: Sequential binding of Staphylococcal gamma-hemolysin to human erythrocytes and complex formation of the hemolysin on the cell surface.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 61:846, 1997.
77. Proft T, Fraser JD: Bacterial superantigens. Clin Exp Immunol 133:299, 2003.
78. Bisno AL, Brito MO, Collins CM: Molecular basis of group A streptococcal virulence. Lancet Infect Dis 3:191, 2003.
79. Gibofsky A, Kerwar S, Zabriskie JB: Rheumatic fever. The relationships between host, microbe, and genetics. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 24:237, 1998.
80. Stevens DL: The toxins of group A streptococcus, the flesh eating bacteria. Immunol Invest 26:129, 1997.
81. Paton JC: The contribution of pneumolysin to the pathogenicity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Trends Microbiol 4:103, 1996.
82. Loeche WJ: Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 50:353, 1986.
83. Hadfield TL, McEvoy P, Polotsky Y, Tzinserling VA, Yakovlev AA: The pathology of diphtheria. J Infect Dis 181 (Suppl 1):S116, 2000.
84. Mengaud J, Ohayon H, Gounon P, Mege RM, Cossart P: E-cadherin is the receptor for internalin, a surface protein required for entry of L. monocytogenes into epithelial cells. Cell
85. Swartz MN: Recognition and management of anthrax: an update. N Engl J Med 345:1621, 2001.
86. Mourez M, Lacy DB, Cunningham K, et al: 2001: a year of major advances in anthrax toxin research. Trends Microbiol 10:287, 2002.
87. Grinberg LM, Abramova FA, Yampolskaya OV, Walker DH, Smith JH: Quantitative pathology of inhalational anthrax I: quantitative microscopic findings. Mod Pathol 14:482, 2001.
88. Torres HA, Reddy BT, Raad, II, et al: Nocardiosis in cancer patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 81:388, 2002.
89. Tyrrell GJ, Chui L, Johnson M, Chang N, Rennie RP, Talbot JA: Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 8:519, 2002.
90. Pathan N, Faust SN, Levin M: Pathophysiology of meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. Arch Dis Child 88:601, 2003.
91. Serkin CD, Seifert HS: Frequency of pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol 180:1955, 1998.
92. Mooi FR, van Loo IH, King AJ: Adaptation of Bordetella pertussis to vaccination: a cause for its reemergence? Emerg Infect Dis 7:526, 2001.
93. Hardwick TH, Cassiday P, Weyant RS, Bisgard KM, Sanden GN: Changes in predominance and diversity of genomic subtypes of Bordetella pertussis isolated in the United States,
1935 to 1999. Emerg Infect Dis 8:44, 2002.
94. Locht C, Antoine R, Jacob-Dubuisson F: Bordetella pertussis, molecular pathogenesis under multiple aspects. Curr Opin Microbiol 4:82, 2001.
95. Gierschik P: ADP-ribosylation of signal-transducing guanine nucleotide-binding proteins by pertussis toxin. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 175:69, 1992.
96. Govan JR, Deretic V: Microbial pathogenesis in cystic fibrosis: mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Microbiol Rev 60:539, 1996.
97. Kreitman RJ, Pastan I: Targeting Pseudomonas exotoxin to hematologic malignancies. Semin Cancer Biol 6:297, 1995.
98. Britigan BE, Roeder TL, Rasmussen GT, Shasby DM, McCormick ML, Cox CD: Interaction of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretory products pyocyanin and pyochelin generates
hydroxyl radical and causes synergistic damage to endothelial cells: implications for Pseudomonas-associated tissue injury. J Clin Invest 90:2187, 1992.
99. Cravens G, J.S. Marr: The Black Death. New York, Ballantine Books, 1977.
100. Boisier P, Rahalison L, Rasolomaharo M, et al: Epidemiologic features of four successive annual outbreaks of bubonic plague in Mahajanga, Madagascar. Emerg Infect Dis 8:311,
101. Cornelis GR: Molecular and cell biology aspects of plague. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:8778, 2000.
102. Lewis DA: Chancroid: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management. Sex Transm Infect 79:68, 2003.
103. O'Farrell N: Donovanosis. Sex Transm Infect 78:452, 2002.
104. Glickman MS, Jacobs WR: Microbial pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: dawn of a discipline. Cell 104:477, 2003.
105. Fratti RA, Backer JM, Gruenberg J, Corvera S, Deretic V: Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Rab5 effectors in phagosomal biogenesis and mycobacterial phagosome
maturation arrest. J Cell Biol 154:631, 2001.
106. Bellamy R, Ruwende C, Corrah T, McAdam KP, Whittle HC, Hill AV: Variations in the NRAMP1 gene and susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africans. N Engl J Med 338:640,
107. Young D, Hussell T, Dougan G: Chronic bacterial infections: living with unwanted guests. Nat Immunol 3:1026, 2002.
108. Flynn J, Chan J: Immunology of tuberculosis. Annu Rev Immunol 19:93, 2001.
109. Yamamura M, Uyemura K, Deans RJ, et al: Defining protective responses to pathogens: cytokine profiles in leprosy lesions. Science 254:277, 1991.
110. Van Voorhis WC, Barrett LK, Koelle DM, Nasio JM, Plummer FA, Lukehart SA: Primary and secondary syphilis lesions contain mRNA for Th1 cytokines. J Infect Dis 173:491,
111. Blanco DR, Miller JN, Lovett MA: Surface antigens of the syphilis spirochete and their potential as virulence determinants. Emerg Infect Dis 3:11, 1997.
112. Barbour AG, Burman N, Carter CJ, Kitten T, Bergstrom S: Variable antigen genes of the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii are activated by promoter addition. Mol Microbiol
113. Fekade D, Knox K, Hussein K, et al: Prevention of Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions by treatment with antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha. N Engl J Med 335:311, 1996.
114. Hengge UR, et al: Lyme borreliosis. Lancet Infect Dis 3:489, 2000.
115. Steere AC: Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 345:115, 2001.
116. Brook I: Microbiology of polymicrobial abscesses and implications for therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 50:805, 2002.
117. Songer JG: Bacterial phospholipases and their role in virulence. Trends Microbiol 5:156, 1997.
118. McClane BA: Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and intestinal tight junctions. Trends Microbiol 8:145, 2000.
119. Hammond GA, Lyerly DM, Johnson JL: Transcriptional analysis of the toxigenic element of Clostridium difficile. Microb Pathog 22:143, 1997.
120. Coonrod DV: Chalmydial infections. Curr Womens Health Rep 2:266, 2002.
121. Burstein GR, Zenilman JM: Nongonococcal urethritis: a new paradigm. Clin Infect Dis 28 (Suppl 1):S66, 1999.
122. Mabey D, Peeling RW: Lymphogranuloma venereum. Sex Transm Infect 78:90, 2002.
123. Azad AF, Beard CB: Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors. Emerg Infect Dis 4:179, 1998.
124. Bise G, Coninx R: Epidemic typhus in a prison in Burundi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91:133, 1997.
125. Valbuena G, Feng HM, Walker DH: Mechanisms of immunity against rickettsiae: new perspectives and opportunities offered by unusual intracellular parasites. Microbes Infect 4:625,
126. Latge JP, Calderone R: Host-microbe interactions: fungi invasive human fungal opportunistic infections. Curr Opin Microbiol 5:355, 2002.
127. Soll DR: Candida commensalism and virulence: the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Acta Trop 81:101, 2002.
128. Calderone RA, Fonzi WA: Virulence factors of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiol 9:327, 2001.
129. Romani L, Bistoni F, Puccetti P: Fungi, dendritic cells and receptors: a host perspective of fungal virulence. Trends Microbiol 10:508, 2002.
130. Sanglard D, Hube B, Monod M, Odds FC, Gow NA: A triple deletion of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP4, SAP5, and SAP6 of Candida albicans causes attenuated
virulence. Infect Immun 65:3539, 1997.
131. Rodrigues ML, Alviano CS, Travassos LR: Pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans: virulence factors and immunological mechanisms. Microbes Infect 1:293, 1999.
132. Fries BC, Goldman DL, Casadevall A: Phenotypic switching in Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbes Infect 4:1345, 2002.
133. Williamson PR: Laccase and melanin in the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Front Biosci 2:99, 1997.
134. Rodrigues ML, dos Reis FC, Puccia R, Travassos LR, Alviano CS: Cleavage of human fibronectin and other basement membrane-associated proteins by a Cryptococcus neoformans
serine proteinase. Microb Pathog 34:65, 2003.
135. Debeaupuis JP, Sarfati J, Chazalet V, Latge JP: Genetic diversity among clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 65:3080, 1997.
136. Latge JP: Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:310, 1999.
137. Prieto R, Yousibova GL, Woloshuk CP: Identification of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes by genetic complementation in an Aspergillus flavus mutant lacking the aflatoxin gene cluster.
Appl Environ Microbiol 62:3567, 1996.
138. Arruda LK, Platts-Mills TA, Fox JW, Chapman MD: Aspergillus fumigatus allergen I, a major IgE-binding protein, is a member of the mitogillin family of cytotoxins. J Exp Med
139. Ribes J, Vanover-Sams C, Baker D: Zygomycetes in human disease. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13:236, 2000.
140. Cerami C, Frevert U, Sinnis P, et al: The basolateral domain of the hepatocyte plasma membrane bears receptors for the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum
sporozoites. Cell 70:1021, 1992.
141. Chen Q, Schlichtherle M, Wahlgren M: Molecular aspects of severe malaria. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:439, 2000.
142. Hill AV, Elvin J, Willis AC, et al: Molecular analysis of the association of HLA-B53 and resistance to severe malaria. Nature 360:434, 1992.
143. Ocana-Morgner C, Mota MM, Rodriguez A: Malaria blood stage suppression of liver stage immunity by dendritic cells. J Exp Med 197:143, 2003.
144. Boustani MR, Gelfand JA: Babesiosis. Clin Infect Dis 22:611, 1996.
145. Magill AJ: Epidemiology of the leishmaniases. Dermatol Clin 13:505, 1995.
146. Titus RG, Ribeiro JM.: Salivary gland lysates from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis enhance Leishmania infectivity. Science 239:1306, 1988.
147. Zilberstein D, Shapira M: The role of pH and temperature in the development of Leishmania parasites. Annu Rev Microbiol 48:449, 1994.
148. Sacks D, Sher A: Evasion of innate immunity by parasitic protozoa. Nat Immunol 3:1041, 2002.
149. Beverley SM, Turco SJ: Identification of genes mediating lipophosphoglycan biosynthesis by functional complementation of Leishmania donovani mutants. Ann Trop Med Parasitol
89 (Suppl 1):11, 1995.
150. Sacks D, Noben-Trauth N: The immunology of susceptibility and resistance to Leishmania major in mice. Nat Rev Immunol 2:845, 2002.
151. Navarro M, Gull K: A pol I transcriptional body associated with VSG mono-allelic expression in Trypanosoma brucei. Nature 414:759, 2001.
152. Robinson NP, Burman N, Melville Se, Barry JD: Predominance of duplicative VSG gene conversion in antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. Mol Cell Biol 19:5839, 1999.
153. Norris KA, Bradt B, Cooper NR, So M: Characterization of a Trypanosoma cruzi C3 binding protein with functional and genetic similarities to the human complement regulatory
protein, decay-accelerating factor. J Immunol 147:2240, 1991.
154. Andrews NW: Lysosomes and the plasma membrane: trypanosomes reveal a secret relationship. J Cell Biol 158:389, 2002.
155. Tarleton RL, Zhang L, Downs MO: "Autoimmune rejection" of neonatal heart transplants in experimental Chagas disease is a parasite-specific response to infected host tissue. Proc
Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:3932, 1997.
156. Siddiqui AA, Berk SL: Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Clin Infect Dis 33:1040, 2001.
157. Hoberg EP: Taenia tapeworms: their biology, evolution and socioeconomic significance. Microbes Infect 4:859, 2002.
158. Zhang W, Li J, McManus DP: Concepts in immunology and diagnosis of hydatid disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 16:18, 2003.
159. Kristensson K, Mhlanga JD, Bentivoglio M: Parasites and the brain: neuroinvasion, immunopathogenesis and neuronal dysfunctions. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 265:227, 2002.
160. White AJ: Neurocysticercosis: updates on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Annu Rev Med 51:187, 2000.
161. McManus DP: The molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus and cystic hydatid disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 (Suppl 1):S151, 2002.
162. Polvere RI, Kabbash CA, Capo VA, Kadan I, Despommier DD: Trichinella spiralis: synthesis of type IV and type VI collagen during nurse cell formation. Exp Parasitol 86:191, 1997.
163. Ortega-Pierres MG, Yepez-Mulia L, Homan W, et al: Workshop on a detailed characterization of Trichinella spiralis antigens: a platform for future studies on antigens and antibodies
to this parasite. Parasite Immunol 18:273, 1996.
164. Urban JF, Jr, Noben-Trauth N, Schopf L, Madden KB, Finkelman FD: Cutting edge: IL-4 receptor expression by non-bone marrow-derived cells is required to expel gastrointestinal
nematode parasites. J Immunol 167:6078, 2001.
165. Akiho H, Blennerhassett P, Deng Y, Collins SM: Role of IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 in inflammation-induced hypercontractility of murine smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol
Gastrointest Liver Physiol 282:G226, 2002.
166. Ross AG, Bartley PB, Sleigh AC, et al: Schistosomiasis. N Engl J Med 346:1212, 2002.
167. Pearce EJ, MacDonald AS: The immunobiology of schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Immunol 2:499, 2002.
168. Allen JE, Loke P: Divergent roles for macrophages in lymphatic filariasis. Parasite Immunol 23:345, 2001.
169. King CL: Transmission intensity and human immune responses to lymphatic filariasis. Parasite Immunol 23:363, 2001.
170. Maizels RM, Blaxter ML, Scott AL: Immunological genomics of Brugia malayi: filarial genes implicated in immune evasion and protective immunity. Parasite Immunol 23:327,
171. Lawrence RA, Devaney E: Lymphatic filariasis: parallels between the immunology of infection in humans and mice. Parasite Immunol 23:353, 2001.
172. Maizels RM, Gomez-Escobar N, Gregory WF, Murray J, Zang X: Immune evasion genes from filarial nematodes. Int J Parasitol 31:889, 2001.
173. Taylor MJ, Cross HF, Ford L, Makunde WH, Prasad GB, Bilo K: Wolbachia bacteria in filarial immunity and disease. Parasite Immunol 23:401, 2001.
174. Hoerauf A, Buttner DW, Adjei O, Pearlman E: Onchocerciasis. BMJ 326:207, 2003.
175. Hoerauf A, Mand S, Adjei O, Fleischer B, Buttner DW: Depletion of wolbachia endobacteria in Onchocerca volvulus by doxycycline and microfilaridermia after ivermectin treatment.
Lancet 357:1415, 2001.
Date: 2016-04-22; view: 441