Topic 8. State policy in the sphere of security of tourist and hotel services
The purpose of the lectures: Review of the specifics of tourism products as a commodity on the market of tourist services.
Keywords: tourism product, shop tours
1. The essence, the definition and characteristics of the tourism product
2. Definition of the tourist product
3. Tourist services and a tourist product. Their interaction
Tourism is an integral part of human life on our planet. This sophisticated, high-yield interdisciplinary complex represents one of the major sectors of the global economy, it helps to ensure a high level of employment, social welfare and quality of life, as well as development, economic cohesion and cultural diversity of countries and regions of the world.
In the modern world is inevitable existence of factors that put the safety of tourists pass, thereby hampering the development of the tourism industry, and all efforts to attract tourists to the country, will be in vain if they are not an acceptable level of security will be provided. And here the main security guarantor of state acts.
Since the early 90-ies of Kazakhstan has started formation of the national tourism market, which is now actively becoming part of the international. In this regard, one of the key tasks of the state policy in the sphere of tourism is to develop a modern, comprehensive legislation, taking into account the norms of international law.
According to WTO, tourism legislation on the regulation adopted in more than 100 countries around the world. Legislators in these countries proceeded from the natural assumption that the relief of tourist trips, simplification of tourist formalities and the free movement of tourists and increase their safety requires common definitions of tourism and unified legal framework, which would be easy enough to regulate the relationship between the various actors on the international tourist market, regardless of from the guide and the visited country, or a chain of countries around the route of the tourist.
The basis of the state policy in the field of tourism security is the Law "About bases of tourist activity".
Undoubtedly, the legislation in the sphere of tourist safety and protection of tourist attractions and facilities should always be developed and applied in conjunction with all the other legislative measures aimed at the elimination of violence and crime, on the one hand, and the protection and preservation of the environment, especially in the area of tourist attractions - on the other. For example, in Kazakhstan the activities associated with tourism, is regulated not only by the law on tourism, but also the laws on specially protected natural territories of the forest, about the enterprises of foreign trade, on advertising, on the media for the Protection of consumer rights, the state standards on these or other services, as well as criminal, tax, customs codes and other regulations.
And, nevertheless, the non-use of existing laws and regulations, as well as their fragmentary nature pose serious problems for the solution of which will require a vigorous approach to the issue of security in tourism on the part of those involved in tourism issues.
Over the past 60-70 years, the main documents adopted by the international character of regulating tourist activities in general and in particular the problem of security. These documents periodically get better and enhanced in line with the current international situation. Kazakhstan has ratified a large number of various international treaties, conventions, declarations and other acts that ensure the development and dissemination of tourism.
Problems of a different nature, arising from tourists, mostly due to the fact that they were not informed in advance about certain travel conditions, the specifics of the country, food, accommodation, attitude of local people towards foreigners. Moreover, the tourist company is obliged to provide tourists with comprehensive information about the organization of the tour, their rights and obligations. But, unfortunately, many companies are interested primarily in making a profit, do not provide sufficient information to its customers, as well as virtually no work to identify high-risk areas, including areas with unfavorable criminal situation.
The most important methods of state regulation of the tourism industry also include: licensing of tourist activities, standardization of tourist activities and facilities of the tourist industry, the tourist product certification, are carried out in order to protect the rights and interests of tourists.
In some countries, the term "licensing" does not actually legislated, and with the state requirements to travel agents for their financial and other responsibilities to customers, training of managers and employees, insurance companies and tourists themselves very strict. The main efforts there focused on the fullest protection of the rights of tourists-consumers and the constant improvement of tourist agencies responsible for the quality of tourism products and other services.
In the Republic of Kazakhstan to the licensed activities include tour operator, travel agency, sightseeing activities, as well as the activities of tourism instructor. A condition of license in the Republic of Kazakhstan is the need to conclude the tour operators and travel agents of the contract of insurance of civil liability, the size of the insured amount can not be less than ten thousand monthly calculation indices.
One of the implementation of the state to protect the rights and interests of consumers is the standardization of tourism services. State standardization system is a set of basic state standards, which must define the rules and procedures of design, build, presentation, application of standards of different categories and types. The quality of services is confirmed by the objective test for compliance with established standards, indicators, requirements for the declared class of service. Moreover, the main requirement is always the safety of: products, works and services for environmental protection, life, health and property; quality of products, works and services in accordance with the level of development of science, engineering and technology; saving all kinds of resources.
Objects of standardization in the tourist and excursion services to the population are tourist-excursion services, tourist travel, advertising and information services, transport services, household services, catering services, cultural services, sports and recreation, and accommodation.
Kazakhstan has a National Standard ST RK 3.7-2002 "Procedure for certification of tourist and excursion services and services for the provision of places of tourist accommodation". In addition, there are state standards from the former Soviet Union - GOST 28681.3-95 "tourist-excursion services. Requirements to ensure the safety of tourists and day-trippers "and GOST 28681.1-95" tourist-excursion services. Design of tourist services. "
These regulations specify that in order to ensure the safety of the State Standard of the RK and other state bodies, exercising control within its competence, set safety requirements.
enterprises Standards set mandatory requirements for specific travel services, including conditions of service, the organization of production management, the technical equipment, technological processes and techniques applied only in the enterprise.
Modern hotels serving travelers to become full-service hotels. In the hotel industry sales service includes a wide variety of services, this list is constantly updated, modified and varies depending on the size of the hotel, its location, level of comfort and other factors.
Active and rational use of standards (primarily international) makes it possible to ensure the required quality of products and services, to organize a smoothly running and continuous process, and leads to overcoming technical barriers in foreign markets, broaden the base of production cooperation with foreign partners, the establishment of a higher level prices for products and services and increases the competitiveness of Kazakhstan's enterprises in the global market.
A common mechanism of regulation of relations in the field of services to the population is the certification. The document confirming the safety of services, is the certificate of conformity. Currently, however, the certification of tourist services in Kazakhstan transferred on a voluntary basis and many travel agencies in the pursuit of "saving" waive "unnecessary costs", and yet have a certificate of compliance could be an effective method of control over data security services.
Entry and stay of foreign citizens in a given country, as well as international tourism activity itself, is still a relatively long time to be under strict government control. This is due primarily to the existing differences in socio-economic development of countries and peoples, their different understanding of categories such as order, morality and legality. Significant differences exist in perceptions of the level of general civilization and culture.
The theoretical aspect of the procedure for the entry of foreign tourists in a particular country and the associated degree of "hardness or softness" of tourist formalities is in a kind of equilibrium with the interests of the state in terms of its security, public order and the rights and freedoms of citizens. At various historical stages of development of the state balance is disturbed, and occasionally outweigh the one or the other side. With the elimination of the differences in social and economic development of States and enforcement of norms of their rights to the same level as in the common understanding of "human rights" - as a "World citizen" and not just a single country - will dominate the free order of entrance and exit in other countries will be as simple tourist formalities, caused by a need to conduct international tourist statistics.
But at the same time for some states it is it is very distant future. Systematic violations by travelers of various rules and regulations force the state to be more "formalist" than hospitable hosts. And with such a rigorous approach tourist during the trip falls not so much in the "hospitality industry" as beginning to face tough police and administrative system, which is the guardian of the interests of the country and citizens, protecting them from illegal immigrants, international terrorism and other " adversity. "
In conclusion, it should be noted that for many Kazakh businessmen, as well as for the state and society as a whole, the moment of truth. Before Kazakh hospitality industry is a task not only to survive, but also to successfully compete on the international tourist market in the context of globalization, openness of the national economy. The most important condition for the competitiveness of Kazakhstan is a modern, stable and predictable legislation, and reliably providing such an important fact, as security.
Control questions: 1. Travel business.
2. Tourism and nature protection.?
3. What is the Shopping tours?
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