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VI. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate prepositions. The first one is shown as an example.

1. Every engineering design operates within constraints that must be identified and taken into account.

2. Many engineers are engaged __in the___ science.

3. ___on__ the one hand, there may be unexpected benefits.

4. Our access to and use of vast stores of fossil fuels have made us dependent __from___ a nonrenewable resource.

5. Technology is largely responsible _____for such large-scale changes as the increased urbanization of society and the dramatically growing economic interdependence of communities worldwide.

6. Most technological innovations spread or disappear _on____ the basis of free-market forces — that is, on the basis of how people and companies respond to such innovations.

7. Secrecy most often provides only an advantage __on___ terms of time — a head start, not absolute control of knowledge.

8. An automobile is a more complex system, made - of subsystems for controlling engine temperature, combustion rate, direction, speed, and so forth.

9. The professional values of engineering are very similar ___to__ those of science, including the advantages seen in the open sharing of knowledge.

VII. a) In the text “Technology and Science” find the synonyms to the given words.

Desire=relative; amateur=apprenties; request=injury; approach=try; involvement=involve; insight=understanding; improved=extend; breakdown=;

Interpret=comnstruct; necessary=requisite

b) Complete the gaps in the sentences with the appropriate words from part “a”.

Magnesium and iron are also __necessary____for the growth of green plants.

We take a varied and often innovative _approach____ to teaching, learning and assessment.

We use highly ___improved__ computer models to simulate the body's interaction with the implant.

The gearbox suffered the __breakdown___ of a bolt in its upper part.

He has spent over thirty years with the company, rising through the ranks from a young _amateur____ to becoming managing director.

It is too early to make an informed _request_____ about the scale of the impact on the UK economy.

VIII. Complete the sentences using information from the text “Technology and Science”.

1. First task of engineers is to develop a general approach and then … 1then work out the technical details of the construction of requisite objects (such as an automobile engine, a computer chip, or ar mechanical toy) or processes (such as irrigation, opinion polling, or product testing).

 

2. The main role of scientist is … 2Scientists see patterns in phenomena as making the world understandable; engineers also see them as making the world manipulable. Scientists seek to show that theories fit the data

3. The results of world changing cause … 3But the results of changing the world are often complicated and unpredictable. They can include unexpected benefits, unexpected costs, and unexpected risks — any of which may fall on different social groups at different times.

 

4. Realizing the principles of things’ behavior comes from … scientific understanding



5. Technology is closely connected with some branches such as … such as solid-state physics (which involves transistors and superconductors; scientific inquiry and to mathematical modeling

6. Scientists, mathematicians and engineers deal ( with changing the world ) …

7. Technology influences … on the social system and culture more directly than scientific research

 

IX. Work in pairs. Can you explain the meaning of the words dealing with the technology? Complete the following passages with the words in the diagram.

1. ___State of the art___ is defined as "the incorporation of new ideas and the most up to date knowledge in order to make advancements in the already existing knowledge". There are several synonyms of the phrase ___State of the art ___ such as advancement, stylish, artistic work, modern.

2. ___Cutting - edge___ technology refers to technological devices, techniques or achievements that employ the most current and high-level IT developments; in other words, technology at the frontiers of knowledge. ____Cutting - edge __ is also known as leading edge or state-of-the-art technology.

3. ___High-end__relating to the most expensive, most sophisticated, or most powerful in a variety of products such as computers.

4. __Innovative____ inventions are new products or methods created from original ideas, while innovations are new versions of something that offer an expanded use.


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 522


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