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Academic vocabulary

Fortunately, 80% of vocabulary in any text, including the academic ones, is known as General Service Word List (Alexander et al, 2008).These are about 2,000 words such as knowledge, our, each, computer screen.


Academic Word List ( AWL) , which is typically 20% of an academic text, can be subdivided into Technical (5%) , Semi-Technical and General Academic Vocabulary. AWL was first compiled by Coxhead ( 2000) and is available at www.language.massey.ac.nz/staff/awl/mostfreq1.shtml

Task 6. Find examples of different vocabulary types in the Methodological Approach section of the article and write them in the last column of the table.


Types of Vocabulary Explanation Examples Examples from the Methodological Approach section
Technical Terms specific to a discipline, which would not usually be understood by a non-specialist algorithm, bug, blast furnace, martensite, multi-modal densities, cartilage    
Semi-Technical Words of phrases in general use which also have a restricted or special meaning in a particular discipline set, sensor, sample, function, particle, pillar, puddle, plant, instruments  
General Academic Vocabulary Vocabulary that represents academic activities in neutral, formal register which we intuitively feel sound academic approach, estimation, furthermore, due to, measurement, in this paper, result  


Methodological approach section also contains a great number of Passive forms, and a teacher can draw students’ attention to them if s/he wants to.


4) Read the results section.


Task 7. Read the Results section on p 4 and make notes:


Case Box module – all information about a patient

Hypotheses Advancement ___________________________________


Hypothesis Checking________________________________________


Differential diagnosis________________________________________




Task 8. Read the paragraph on p4which starts with ‘In the consultation mode the system’ and finishes with ‘In order to refine the diagnosis’. Analyze the cohesive ties which link the paragraph together and write the examples in the table below.

Cohesionrefers to the range of possibilities that link ideas in the text: what comes next with what has gone before. These are different kinds of cohesive ties:



Reference words determiners like ‘one, which, this, their, where’ some drug, the tree, at the nodes where, other than, this ( may be the case), when
General nouns lexically empty nouns , e.g ‘former, feature, character’ the last, in general case
Conjunction ‘However, although, but ‘indicate contrast;’   ‘And, with’ indicate addition;   ‘Because of’ indicates a reason. Result:  
Simultaneous action:


5. Read thediscussion and conclusion section.

Evaluate the expert system design and application.


Phase V: Increasing understanding

1) Reread the article in its entirety. You may wish to read several times.

2) Be sure to write on the article. Circle words you do not know. Check important points. Question things you do not understand or that do not appear to make sense.

3) Consult the references. Look up points that were not fully explained.

4) Before leaving the article, reread the abstract once again.

Date: 2016-03-03; view: 236

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