II. Scan the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Australian religion ended with the arrival of the first British settlers in 1788. It is known that all the subsequent immigrants and their descendants have been predominantly Catholic.
2. Events such as the 19th century Australian gold rush brought adherents of the various Muslim religions; and the requirements of the pre-mechanized era of transport brought specialized workers from British India, such as the mainly Muslim "Afghan Cameleers".
3. The Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services. While less than a quarter of Christians attend church weekly, around a quarter of all school students attend church-affiliated schools, and the Christian festivals of Easter and Christmas are public holidays.
4. The Roman Christian Church is by far the largest non-government provider of health and education services in Australia,and faith-based aid organizations such as the St Vincent De Paul Society and Salvation Army receive widespread community support.
5. There is a general belief among the indigenous Australians that the world, man, and the various animals and plants were created by certain Supernatural beings who afterwards disappeared, either ascending to the sky or entering the earth.
6. Centuries before European sailors reached Australia, Christian theologians already speculated whether this region, located on the opposite side of the Earth from Asia, had human inhabitants and, if so, whether the Antipodes descended from Adam and have been redeemed by Jesus.
7. By the early 18th century, Christian leaders felt that the natives of the little-known Terra Australis Incognita and Hollandia Nova (still often thought as two distinct land masses) were in need of conversion to Catholicism.
8. In Western Australia the Anglican clergy saw themselves as pioneering a new society. Besides the usual religious roles of leading church building and public worship they took a major part in charity, education and public debate.
9. The Jewish population has increased slightly in recent times due to immigration from South Africa and the former Soviet Union. The largest Jewish community in Australia is in Sydney, with about 60,000, followed by Canberra with about 45,000 members.
10. At least eight Jewish convicts are believed to have been transported to Sydney aboard the First Fleet in 1788, when the first British settlement was established on the continent.
11. According to the Australian census, Paganism is the largest non-Christian religion in Australia, with 418,000 adherents, or 2.1% of the total population.
12. Although the first definite cases of Buddhist settlement in Australia were in 1848, there has been speculation from some anthropologists that there may have been contact some hundreds of years earlier. Buddhists began arriving in Australia in significant numbers during the gold rush of the 1850s, with an influx of French miners.
13. In the 19th century, Hindus first came to Australia to serve in the army. Many who remained worked in small business, as camel drivers, merchants and hawkers, selling goods between small rural communities.
14. Sikhs have been in Australia since the 1830s, initially coming to work as labourers in the cane fields and as cameleers, known as Ghans. Around the start of the 20th century, a number of them were working as hawkers, opening up stores.
15. In general, non-Christian religions and those with no religion, have been decreasing in proportion to the overall population.
III. Read the text about Aboriginal Religion. Choose the phrase from A to K to fill in the gaps. There is one phrase that you won’t need to use:
Aboriginal religion, like many other religions, 1 _____ having a god or gods who created people and the surrounding environment during a particular creation period at the beginning of time. Aboriginal people are 2 _____ , but rather than praying to a single god they cannot see, each group generally believes in a number of different deities, whose image is often depicted in some tangible, 3 _____ . This form may be that of a particular landscape feature, an image in a rock art shelter, or in a plant or animal form.
Landscape features may be 4 _____ itself, such as a particular rock representing a specific figure, or they may be the result of something the deity did or that happened to the deity in the Creation Period, such as a river having formed when 5 _____ passed through the area in the Creation Period, or a depression in a rock or in the ground representing the footprint or sitting place of an Ancestral Being.
Aboriginal people do not believe in animism. This is the belief that all natural objects 6 _____ . They do not believe that a rock possesses a soul, but they might believe that 7 _____ was created by a particular deity in the creation period, or that it represents a deity from the Creation Period. They believe that many animals and plants are interchangeable with human life through 8 _____ , and that this relates back to the Creation Period when these animals and plants were once people.
There is no one deity covering all of Australia. Each tribe has its own deities with an 9 _____ , just as there is an overlap of words between language groups. Thus, for example, the Wandjina spirits in the northern Kimberley of Western Australia belong to the Ngarinyin, Worora and Wunambal tribes. These Wandjina are responsible for bringing 10 _____ , as well as laying down many of the laws for the people. As one travels east, this function is taken over by Yagjagbula and Jabirringgi, The Lightning Brothers of the Wardaman tribe in the Victoria River District of the Northern Territory, then by Nargorkun, also known as Bula, in the upper Katherine River area, and by Namarrgun, the Lighning Man in the Kakadu and western Arnhem Land regions.