II. Scan the text and decide whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. The growth of Australia's population has two components: natural increase (the number of births plus the number of deaths) and net overseas migration (NOM). 2. The contribution to population growth for the year ended 31 March 2014 was higher from net overseas migration (60%) than from natural increase (40%).
3. Eastern Australia continued to record the fastest growth rate of all states and territories at 2.5%.
4. Australia’s population, like that of most developed countries, is ageing as a result of sustained low fertility and increasing standard of life.
5. Over the next several decades, population ageing is projected to have significant implications for Australia, including for health, labour force participation, housing and demand for skilled labour.
6. At 30 June 2010, South Australia had the oldest population of all the states and territories with a median age of 39.9 years.
7. Most of Australia’s population is concentrated in three widely separated coastal regions. By far the larger of these, in terms of area and population, lies in the south-east and east.
8. At 30 June 2008, population density was highest in the capital cities of Australia’s states and territories. With the exception of Sydney, all these capital cities are located on the coast.
9. Five of the top ten most densely-populated statistical local areas (SLAs) were located in Canberra, which is currently the most populous city in Australia.
10. At the Australia level, any growth in the Indigenous population is entirely due to natural increase (that is, the excess of births over deaths), as net overseas migration is assumed to be not significant.
11. People born in the USA continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, accounting for 1.2 million people. The next largest group was born in New Zealand with 544,000 people, followed by China (380,000 people), India (341,000) and Italy (216,000).
12. At the time of European settlement, there were an estimated 50 languages spoken by the Indigenous people of Australia.
13. The most common Indigenous languages differ between states and territories reflecting the origins of particular Aboriginal groups and their continuity with their traditional lands.
14. Melbourne is the most multilingual city. Migrant groups don’t want their languages to be maintained through government policies such as the Languages Other Than English (LOTE) program in secondary schools.
15. The use of these colloquial or slang words, often coupled with an Australian sense of responsibility that is characterized by irony and irreverence, can sometimes cause confusion for international visitors.
III. Read this short text about the indigenous Australians. Choose the phrase from A to K to fill in the gaps. There is one phrase that you won’t need to use:
The 1 _____ for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 40,000 years ago most probably from the islands of Indonesia and New Guinea.
These first inhabitants of Australia 2 _____ , who over the course of many 3 _____ diversified widely throughout the continent and its nearby islands. Although their technical culture remained static—depending on 4 _____ and weapons—their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several languages, and confederacies sometimes linked widely 5 _____ . Aboriginal population density ranged from approximately one person per 3 km2 (1 sq mi) along the coasts to one person per 90 km2 (35 sq mi) 6 _____ . Food procurement was usually a matter for the nuclear family, requiring an estimated 3 days of work per week. There was little large game, and outside of some communities in the more fertile south-east, they had no agriculture.
The Dutch navigators landed on the coasts of modern Western Australia and Queensland several times during the 17th century. Captain James Cook 7 _____ in 1770, the west coast was later settled by Britain also. At that time, 8 _____ was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000, divided into as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages. In the 2011 Census, 495,757 respondents declared they were Aboriginal, 31,407 declared they were Torres Strait Islander, and a further 21,206 declared they were both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders.
Since the end of World War II, efforts have been made both by the government and by the public 9 _____ to Aboriginal rights and needs. Today, many tribal Aborigines lead a settled traditional life in remote areas of northern, central and western Australia. In the south, where most Aborigines are 10 _____ , most Aboriginal people live in the cities.