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Sustainable tourism indicators

Environmental Number of accommodation units and facilities
Amount of land occupied by tourism-related superstructure and infrastracture
Destruction or alteration of natural habitat by tourism construction
Amount of erosion, and number of floods and landslides associated with tourism
Effect of tourism on biodiversity
Effect of tourism on species distributions and populations
Effect of tourism on introduction of exotic species
Density of tourism facilities and tourist activities
Concentration of tourism facilities and tourist activities
Number of stayovers and excursionists
Number of ‘visitor- nights ’
Seasonality (e.g. Gini coefficient)
Water, air, noise and solid waste emissions associated with tourism (e.g. expressed per accommodation unit and visitor- night)
Hazardous waste production associated with tourism
Amount of litter associated with tourist activities
Wildlife or habitat deterioration associated with tourist activities
Resource consumption associated with tourism (e.g. water, fossil fuels, metals, agglomerate, forest products, food)
Levels of traffic congestion associated with tourism
Environmental carrying capacity
Position of destination in Butler resort sequence
Economic Revenues earned directly from tourism
Income multiplier effect from tourism (i.e. indirect revenues)
Proportion of destination revenue directly and indirectly obtained from tourism (eg tourism as % of GDP, GPP or GNP)
Proportion of destination employment associated with tourism
Average tourism wage as % of overall average wage
Distribution of jobs by wage level, and measurement of equity
% of tourism jobs occupied by non-local or foreign personnel
Extent of backward linkages with agriculture and other destination sectors
Import content in tourism consumption
% of all imports related to tourism
% of accommodations and attractions that are extern ally/foreign owned or controlled
Profitability of individual operations
Amount and % of profits and wages that are repatriated or leave local are area
Mar keting/promotion costs
Tourism investment by residents and non-residents
Overall economic impact
Social Resident reactions toward tourism and tourists (e.g. Irridex)
No. of resident complaints against tourism
Amount of crime directed against tourists and tourism industry by residents and non-residents
Amount of tourism-related prostitution
Local patronage of tourist attractions and facilities
In-migration associated with tourism industry
Ratio of residents to tourists
Amount of tourist-instigated crime
Psychographic profile e.g. allocentrics, midcentrics and psychocentrics
Tourist satisfaction with destination
Destination image held by visitors and potential visitors
Tourist Attractiveness Index (Smith 1989)
% of tourists who are repeat visitors
Average length of stay
Social carrying capacity
Cultural Conformity of tourism architecture to local vernacular
Number and condition of heritage structures and sites
Integrity of local culture
% of visitors who are international
Market dominance (e.g. concentration ratio)
Extent of cultural commoditization  
Management Recycling and fuel efficiency performance of tourism accommodations, attractions and transportation
Existence of a tourism-related master plan
Existence and actions of tourism-related interest groups
Number of codes of ethics and good practice in place
Extent of industry and tourist adherence to codes
Participation of tourism industry in community improvement projects and programs
Existence of tourism education and awareness programs
Existence of resident education and awareness programs
Habitat enhancement and/or protection associated with presence of tourists
Amount of tourism-related laws and regulations
Presence of EIA procedure for tourism-related businesses
No. of cultural heritage sites that are protected due to tourism

Date: 2016-03-03; view: 191

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The challenges of tourism destinations sustainable development | VI. Complete the sentences in a suitable way. (More than one answer may be possible.)
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