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UNIT 69. Countable and uncountable nouns (2)

A. Many nouns can be used as countable or uncountable nouns, usually with a difference in meaning. Compare:

#1 Countable

* Did you hear a noise just now? (= a particular noise)

* I bought a paper to read. (= a newspaper)

* There's a hair in my soup! (= one single hair)

* You can stay with us. There is a spare room. (= a room in a house)

* I had some interesting experiences while I was away. (= things that happened to me)

* Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time!

#2 Uncountable

* I can't work here. There's too much noise. (not 'too many noises')

* I need some paper to write on. (= material for writing on)

* You've got very long hair. (not 'hairs') (= all the hair on your head)

* You can't sit here. There isn't room. (= space)

* They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience. (not 'experiences')

* I can't wait. I haven't got time.

B. Coffee/tea/beer/juice etc. (drinks) are normally uncountable:

* I don't drink coffee very often.

But they can be countable when you are thinking of a cup/a glass etc. So you can say:

* (in a restaurant) Two coffees and an orange juice, please.

C. There are some nouns that are usually uncountable in English but often countable in other languages. For example:

accommodation behaviour damage luck permission traffic bread furniture luggage progress weather chaos information news scenery work

These nouns are usually uncountable, so:

i) you cannot use a/an with them (you cannot say 'a bread', 'an advice' etc.) and

ii) they are not normally plural (we do not say 'breads', 'advices' etc.).

* I'm going to buy some bread. or .. a loaf of bread. (not 'a bread')

* Enjoy your holiday! I hope you have good weather. (not 'a good weather')

* Where are you going to put all your furniture? (not 'furnitures')

News is uncountable, not plural:

* The news was very depressing. (not 'the news were')

Travel (noun) means 'travelling in general'. You cannot say 'a travel' to mean a journey or a trip:

* We had a very good journey. (not 'a good travel')

Compare these countable and uncountable nouns:

#1 Countable

* I'm looking for a job.

* What a beautiful view!

* It's a nice day today.

* We had a lot of bags and cases.

* These chairs are mine.

* It was a good suggestion.

#2 Uncountable

* I'm looking for work. (not 'a work')

* What beautiful scenery!

* It's nice weather today.

* We had a lot of luggage. (not 'luggages')

* This furniture is mine.

* It was good advice.

 

 

EXERCISES

69.1 Which of the underlined parts of these sentences is correct?

1. 'Did you hear _noise/a noise- just now?' 'No, I didn't hear anything.' ('a noise' is correct)

2. a. If you want to know the news, you can read _paper/a paper._

b. I want to write some letters but I haven't got _a paper/any paper_ to write on.

3. a. I thought there was somebody in the house because there was _light/a light_ on inside.

b. _Light/A light_ comes from the sun.

4. a. I was in a hurry this morning. I didn't have _time/a time_ for breakfast.



b. 'Did you enjoy your holiday?' 'Yes, we had _wonderful time/a wonderful time._'

5. Sue was very helpful. She gave us some very useful _advice/advices._

6. We had _very good weather/a very good weather_ while we were on holiday.

7. We were very unfortunate. We had _bad luck/a bad luck._

8. It's very difficult to find a _work/job_ at the moment.

9. Our _travel/journey_ from London to Istanbul by train was very tiring.

10. When the fire alarm rang, there was _total chaos/a total chaos._

11. I had to buy _a/some_ bread because I wanted to make some sandwiches.

12. Bad news _don't/doesn't_ make people happy.

13. _Your hair is/Your hairs are_ too long. You should have it/them cut.

14. Nobody was hurt in the accident but _the damage/the damages_ to the car _was/were_ quite bad.

69.2 Complete the sentences using these words. Sometimes you need the plural (-s).

chair experience experience furniture hair information job luggage permission progress work

1. I didn't have much _luggage_--just two small bags.

2. They'll tell you all you want to know. They'll give you plenty of ---

3. There is room for everybody to sit down. There are plenty of ---

4. We have no ---, not even a bed or a table.

5. 'What does Alan look like?' He's got a long beard and very short ---

6. Carla's English is better than it was. She's made ---

7. George is unemployed. He's looking for a ---

8. George is unemployed. He's looking for ---

9. If you want to leave work early, you have to ask for ---

10. I don't think Ann will get the job. She hasn't got enough ---

11. Rita has done many interesting things. She should write a book about her ---

69.3 What do you say in these situations? Complete the sentences using one of the words from Section C.

1. Your friends have just arrived at the station. You can't see any suitcases or bags.

You ask them: Have _you got luggage?_

2. You go into the tourist office. You want to know about places to see in the town. You say:

I'd like ---

3. You are a student at school. You want your teacher to advise you about which examinations to take. You say:

Can you give me ---?

4. You want to watch the news on TV but you don't know what time it is on. You ask your friend:

What time ---?

5. You are standing at the top of a mountain. You can see a very long way. It is lovely. You say:

It ---, isn't it?

6. You look out of the window. The weather is horrible: cold, wet and windy. You say to your friend:

What ---!

 

 

UNIT 70. Countable nouns with a/an and some

A. Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

a dog a child the evening this party an umbrella dogs some children the evenings these parties two umbrellas

B. Before singular countable nouns you can use a/an:

* Goodbye! Have a nice evening.

* Do you need an umbrella?

You cannot use singular countable nouns alone (without a/the/my etc.):

* She never wears a hat. (not 'She never wears hat')

* Be careful of the dog. (not 'Be careful of dog')

* What a beautiful day!

* I've got a headache.

C. We use a/an ... to say what kind of thing or person something/somebody is:

* A dog is an animal.

* I'm an optimist.

* Tim's father is a doctor.

* Are you a good driver?

* Jill is a really nice person.

* What a lovely dress!

We say that somebody has a long nose/a nice face/a strong heart etc.:

* Jack has got a long nose. (not 'the long nose')

In sentences like these, we use plural nouns alone (not with 'some'):

* Dogs are animals.

* Most of my friends are students.

* Jill's parents are really nice people.

* What awful shoes!

* Jack has got blue eyes. (not 'the blue eyes')

Remember to use a/an when you say what somebody's job is:

* Sandra is a nurse. (not 'Sandra is nurse')

* Would you like to be an English teacher?

D. You can use some with plural countable nouns. We use some in two ways:

i) Some = a number of/a few of/a pair of:

* I've seen some good films recently. (not 'I've seen good films')

* Some friends of mine are coming to stay at the weekend.

* I need some new sunglasses, (= a new pair of sunglasses)

Do not use some when you are talking about things in general (see also Unit 74):

* I love bananas. (not 'some bananas')

* My aunt is a writer. She writes books. (not 'some books')

Sometimes you can make sentences with or without some (with no difference in meaning):

* There are (some) eggs in the fridge if you're hungry.

ii) Some = some but not all

* Some children learn very quickly. (but not all children)

* Some police officers in Britain carry guns, but most of them don't.

 

 

EXERCISES

70.1 What are these things? Try and find out if you don't know.

1. an ant? _It's an insects._

2. ants? bees? _They're insects._

3. a cauliflower?

4. chess?

5. a violin? a trumpet? a flute?

6. a skyscraper?

7. Earth? Mars? Venus? Jupiter?

8. a tulip?

9. the Rhine? the Nile? the Mississippi?

10 a pigeon? an eagle? a crow?

Who were these people?

11. Beethoven? _Has was a composer._

12. Shakespeare?

13. Albert Einstein?

14. Washington? Lincoln? John Kennedy?

15. Marilyn Monroe?

16 Elvis Presley? John Lennon?

17. Van Gogh? Renoir? Gauguin?

70.2 Read about what these people do and say what their jobs are. Choose one of these jobs:

driving instructor interpreter journalist nurse pilot plumber travel agent waiter

1. Stella looks after patients in hospital. _She's a nurse._

2. George works in a restaurant. He brings the food to the tables. He ---

3. Mary arranges people's holidays for them. She ---

4. Ron works for an airline. He flies aeroplane. ---

5. Linda teaches people how to drive. ---

6. Dave fits and repairs water pipes. ---

7. Jenny writes articles for a newspaper. ---

8. John translates what people are saying from one language into another, so that they can understand each other. ---

70.3 Put in alan or some where necessary. If no word is necessary, leave the space empty(-).

1. I've seen some good films recently.

2. What's wrong with you? Have you got _a_ headache?

3. I know a lot of people. Most of them are - students.

4. When I was --- child, I used to be very shy.

5. Would you like to be --- actor?

6. Do you collect --- stamps?

7. What --- beautiful garden!

8. --- birds, for example the penguin, cannot fly.

9. I've been walking for three hours. I've got --- sore feet.

10. I don't feel very well this morning. I've got --- sore throat.

11. It's a pity we haven't got --- camera. I'd like to take --- photograph of that house.

12. Those are --- nice shoes. Where did you get them?

13. I'm going shopping. I want to buy --- new shoes.

14. You need --- visa to visit --- countries, but not all of them.

15. Jane is --- teacher. Her parents were --- teachers too.

16. Do you enjoy going to --- concerts?

17. When we got to the city centre --- shops were still open but most of them were closed.

18. I don't believe him. He's --- liar. He's always telling --- lies.

 

 

UNIT 71. A/an and the

A. Study this example:

JOHN: I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. The sandwich wasn't very good but the apple was nice.

John says 'a sandwich', 'an apple' because this is the first time he talks about them.

John now says 'the sandwich', 'the apple because Karen knows which sandwich and which apple he means - the sandwich and the apple he had for lunch.

Compare a and the in these examples:

* A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American but I think the woman was British.

* When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. Sometimes we had our evening meal at the hotel and sometimes we went to a restaurant.

B. We use the when we are thinking of one particular thing. Compare a/an and the:

* Tom sat down on a chair. (perhaps one of many chairs in the room)

but Tom sat down on the chair nearest the door. (a particular chair)

* Ann is looking for a job. (not a particular job)

but Did Ann get the job she applied for? (a particular job)

* Have you got a car? (not a particular car)

but I cleaned the car yesterday. (= my car)

For a see also Units 70 and 72A.

C. We use the when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean. For example, in a room we talk about 'the light/the floor/the ceiling/the door/the carpet' etc.:

* Can you turn off the light, please? (= the light in this room)

* I took a taxi to the station. (= the station in that town)

* I'd like to speak to the manager, please. (= the manager of this shop etc.)

In the same way, we say (go to) the bank, the post office:

* I must go to the bank to get some money and then I'm going to the post office to get some stamps. (The speaker is usually thinking of a particular bank or post office.

Also: the doctor, the dentist:

* Carol isn't very well. She's gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor)

* I hate going to the dentist.

Compare a:

* Is there a bank near here?

* My sister is a dentist.

Don't forget the:

* Susan works in the city centre. (not 'in city centre')

* My brother is in the army. (not 'in army')

D. We say 'once a week/three times a day/-'1.20 a kilo' etc.:

* 'How often do you go to the cinema?' 'About once a month.'

* 'How much are those potatoes?' 'Ll.20 a kilo.'

* She works eight hours a day, six days a week.

 

 

EXERCISES

71.1 Put in a/an or the.

1. This morning I bought _a_ newspaper and --- magazine ---newspaper is in my bag but I don't know where I put --- magazine.

2. I saw --- accident this morning --- car crashed into --- tree. --- driver of --- car wasn't hurt but --- car was badly damaged.

3. There are two cars parked outside: --- blue one and --- grey one. --- blue one belongs to my neighbours; I don't know who --- owner of --- grey one is.

4. My friends live in --- old house in --- small village. There is --- beautiful garden behind --- house. I would like to have ---garden like that.

71.2 Put in a/an or the.

1. a. This house is very nice. Has it got --- garden?

b. It's a beautiful day. Let's sit in --- garden.

c. I like living in this house but it's a pity that --- garden is so small.

2. a. Can you recommend --- good restaurant?

b. We had dinner in --- very nice restaurant.

c. We had dinner in --- most expensive restaurant in town.

3. a. She has --- French name but in fact she's English, not French.

b. What's --- name of that man we met yesterday?

c. We stayed at a very nice hotel - I can't remember --- name now.

4. a. There isn't --- airport near where I live --- nearest airport is 70 miles away.

b. Our plane was delayed. We had to wait at --- airport for three hours.

c. Excuse me, please. Can you tell me how to get to --- airport?

5. a. 'Are you going away next week?' 'No, --- week after next.'

b. I'm going away for --- week in September.

c. George has a part-time job. He works three mornings --- week.

71.3 Put in a/an or the in these sentences where necessary.

1. Would you like apple? _an apple._

2. How often do you go to dentist? ---

3. Could you close door, please? ---

4. I'm sorry. I didn't mean to do that. It was mistake ---

5. Excuse me, where is bus station, please? ---

6. I've got problem. Can you help me? ---

7. I'm just going to post office. I won't be long ---

8. There were no chairs, so we had to sit on floor. ---

9. Have you finished with book I lent you? ---

10. My sister has just got job in bank in Manchester. ---

11. We live in small flat near city centre. ---

12. There's small supermarket at end of street I live in ---

71.4 Answer these questions about yourself. Where possible, use the structure in Section D (once a week/three times a day etc.).

1. How often do you go to the cinema? _Three or four times a year._

2. How much does it cost to hire a car in your country? _About L30 a day._

3. How often do you go away on holiday? ---

4. What's the speed limit in towns in your country? ---

5. How much sleep do you need? ---

6. How often do you go out in the evening? ---

7. How much television do you watch (on average)? ---

 

 

UNIT 72. The (1)

A. We use the ... when there is only one of something:

* What is the longest river in the world? (there is only one longest river)

* The earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth.

* I'm going away at the end of this month.

Don't forget the:

* Paris is the capital of France. (not 'Paris is capital of...')

But we use a/an to say what kind of thing something is (see Unit 70C). Compare the and a:

* The sun is a star. (= one of many stars)

* The hotel we stayed at was a very nice hotel.

B. We say: the sky the sea the ground the country the environment:

* We looked up at all the stars in the sky. (not 'in sky')

* Would you rather live in a town or in the country?

* We must do more to protect the environment. (= the natural world around us)

Note that we say space (without 'the') when we mean 'space in the universe':

* There are millions of stars in space. (not 'in the space')

but * I tried to park my car but the space was too small.

C. We use the before same (the same):

* Your pullover is the same colour as mine. (not 'is same colour')

* These two photographs are the same. (not 'are same')

D. We say: (go to) the cinema, the theatre:

* I often go to the cinema but I haven't been to the theatre for ages.

When we say the cinema/the theatre, we do not necessarily mean one particular cinema or theatre.

We usually say the radio, but television (without 'the'):

* I often listen to the radio.

* We heard the news on the radio.

* I often watch television.

* We watched the news on television.

but * Can you turn off the television, please? (= the television set)

Compare a:

* There isn't a theatre in this town.

* I'm going to buy a new radio/television (set).

E. Breakfast lunch dinner

We do not normally use the with the names of meals (breakfast, lunch etc.):

* What did you have for breakfast?

* We had lunch in a very nice restaurant.

* What time is dinner?

But we use a if there is an adjective before breakfast, lunch etc.:

We had a very nice lunch. (not 'we had very nice lunch')

F. Platform 5 Room 126 etc.

We do not use 'the' before noun + number. For example, we say:

* Our train leaves from Platform 5. (not 'the Platform 5')

* (in a shop) Have you got these shoes in size 43? (not 'the size 43')

In the same way, we say: Room 126 (in a hotel) page 29 (of a book) Section A etc.

 

 

EXERCISES

72.1 Put in the or a/an where necessary. If no word is necessary, leave the space empty(-).

1. A: Where did you have - lunch?

B: We went to _a_ restaurant.

2. A: Did you have --- nice holiday?

B: Yes, 'it was --- best holiday I've ever had.

3. A: Where's nearest shop?

B: There's one at --- end of this street.

4. A: Do you often listen to radio?

B: No. In fact I haven't got radio.

5. A: Would you like to travel in --- space?

B: Yes, I'd love to go to -- moon.

6. A: Do you go to -- cinema very often?

B: No, not very often. But I watch a lot of films on --- television.

7. A: It was --- nice day yesterday, wasn't it?

B: Yes, it was beautiful. We went for a walk by --- sea.

8. A: What did you have --- breakfast this morning?

B: Nothing. I never eat --- breakfast.

9. A: Can you tell me where --- Room 25 is, please?

B: It's on --- second floor.

10. A: We spent all our money because we stayed at --- most expensive hotel in town.

B: Why didn't you stay at --- cheaper hotel?

72.2 Put in the where necessary. If you don't need the, leave the space empty(-).

1. I haven't been to _the_ cinema for ages.

2. I lay down on --- ground and looked up at --- sky.

3. Sheila spends most of her free time watching --- television.

4. --- television was on but nobody was watching it.

5. Have you had --- dinner yet?

6. Mary and I arrived at --- same time.

7. You'll find --- information you need at --- top of --- page 15.

8. Peru is a country in South America. --- capital is Lima.

72.3 Put in the or a/an where necessary. If the sentence is already correct, put 'RIGHT'. (If necessary, see Unit 71 for a/an and the.)

1. I Sun is star. _The sun is a star._

2. Tim lives in small village in country. ---

3. Moon goes round earth every 27 days. ---

4. What is highest mountain in world? ---

5. I'm fed up with doing same thing every day. ---

6. It was very hot day. It was hottest day of year. ---

7. I don't usually have lunch but I always eat good breakfast. ---

8. If you live in foreign country, you should try and learn language. ---

9. We missed our train because we were waiting on wrong platform. We were on Platform 3 instead of Platform 8. -

72.4 Complete the sentences using one of the following. Use the if necessary.

breakfast cinema dinner gate Gate 21 Question 8 sea

1. I didn't have time for --- this morning because I was in a hurry.

2. 'I'm going to --- this evening.' 'Are you? What film are you going to see?'

3. There was no wind, so --- was very calm.

4. 'Are you going out this evening?' 'Yes, after ---

5. The examination paper wasn't too difficult but I couldn't answer ---

6. Oh --- is open. I must have forgotten to shut it.

7. (airport announcement) 'Flight BA123 to Vienna is now boarding at ---

 

 

UNIT 73. The (2) (School/the school)

A. Compare school and the school:

#1 Alison is ten years old. Every day she goes to school. She's at school now. School begins at 9 and finishes at 3.

We say a child goes to school or is at school (as a pupil). We are not necessarily thinking of a particular school. We are thinking of school as a general idea.

#2 Today Alison's mother wants to speak to her daughter's teacher. So she has gone to the school to see her. She's at the school now.

Alison's mother is not a pupil. She is not 'at school', she doesn't 'go to school'. But if she wants to see Alison's teacher, she goes to the school (= Alison's school, a particular school).

B. We use prison, hospital, university, and church in a similar way. We do not use the when we are thinking of the general idea of these places and what they are used for. Compare:

#1 * Ken's brother is in prison for robbery. (He is a prisoner. We are not thinking of a particular prison.)

* Jack had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital. He's still in hospital now. (as a patient)

* When I leave school, I want to go to university.

* Mrs Kelly goes to church every Sunday. (to a religious service)

#2 * Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. (He went as a visitor, not as a prisoner.)

* Jill has gone to the hospital to visit Jack.

* She's at the hospital now. (as a visitor)

* Excuse me, where is the university, please? (= the university buildings)

* The workmen went to the church to repair the roof. (not for a religious service)

With most other places, you need the. For example, the cinema, the bank, the station. See Units 71C and 72D.

C. Bed work home

We say: 'go to bed/be in bed' etc. (not 'the bed'):

* It's time to go to bed now.

* This morning I had breakfast in bed.

but * I sat down on the bed. (a particular piece of furniture)

'go to work/be at work/start work/finish work' etc. (not 'the work'):

* Ann didn't go to work yesterday.

* What time do you usually finish work?

'go home/come home/arrive home/be at home' etc.:

* It's late. Let's go home.

* Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon?

D. We say 'go to sea/be at sea' (without 'the') when the meaning is 'go/be on a voyage':

* Keith is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea.

but * I'd like to live near the sea.

* It can be dangerous to swim in the sea.

 

 

EXERCISES

73.1 Complete the sentences using a preposition (to/at/in etc.) + one of the following words:

bed home hospital prison school university work

You can use the words more than once.

1. Two people were injured in the accident and were taken _to hospital._

2. In Britain, children from the age of five have to go ---.

3. Mark didn't go out last night. He stayed ---.

4. I'll have to hurry. I don't want to be late ---.

5. There is a lot of traffic in the morning when everybody is going ---.

6. Cathy's mother has just had an operation. She is still ---.

7. When Julia leaves school, she wants to study economics ---.

8. Bill never gets up before 9 o'clock. It's 8.30 now, so he is still ---.

9. If you commit a serious crime, you could be sent ---.

73.2 Complete the sentences with the word given (school etc.). Use the where necessary.

1. (school)

a. Every term parents are invited to the school to meet the teacher.

b. Why aren't your children at school today? Are they ill?

c. When he was younger, Ted hated ---

d. What time does --- start in the mornings in your country?

e. A: How do your children get home from ---? By bus?

B: No, they walk --- isn't very far.

f. What sort of job does jenny want to do when she leaves ---?

g. There were some people waiting outside --- to meet their children.

2. (university)

a. In your country, do many people go to ---?

b. If you want to get a degree, you normally have to study at ---.

c. This is only a small town but --- is the biggest in the country.

3. (hospital)

a. Nora works as a cleaner at ---.

b. When Ann was ill, we all went to --- to visit her.

c. My brother has always been very healthy. He's never been in ---.

d. Peter was injured in an accident and was kept in --- for a few days.

4. (church)

a. John's mother is a regular churchgoer. She goes to --- every Sunday.

b. John himself doesn't go to ---.

c. John went to --- to take some photographs of the building.

5. (prison)

a. In many places people are in --- because of their political opinions.

b. The other day the fire brigade were called to --- to put out a fire.

c. The judge decided to fine the man -c500 instead of sending him to ---.

6. (home/work/bed)

a. I like to read in --- before I go to sleep?

b. It's nice to travel around but there's no place like ---!

c. Shall we meet after --- tomorrow evening?

d. If I'm feeling tired, I go to --- early.

e. What time do you usually start --- in the morning?

f. The economic situation is very bad. Many people are out of ---

7. (sea)

a. There's a nice view from the window. You can see ---.

b. It was a long voyage. We were at --- for four weeks.

c. I love swimming in ---.

 

 

UNIT 74. The (3) (Children/the children)

A. When we are talking about things or people in general, we do not use 'the':

* I'm afraid of dogs. (not 'the dogs') (dogs = dogs in general, not a particular group of dogs)

* Doctors are paid more than teachers.

* Do you collect stamps?

* Crime is a problem in most big cities. (not 'the crime')

* Life has changed a lot in the last 30 years. (not 'the life')

* Do you often listen to classical music? (not 'the classical music')

* Do you like Chinese food/French cheese/Swiss chocolate?

* My favourite sport is football/skiing/athletics. (not 'the football the skiing' etc.)

* My favourite subject at school was history/physics/English. We say 'most people/most books/most cars' etc. (not 'the most ...'--see also Unit 87A).

* Most people like George. (not 'the most people')

B. We use the when we mean particular things or people. Compare:

#1 In general (without 'the')

* Children learn a lot from playing. (= children in general)

* I often listen to music.

* All cars have wheels.

* Sugar isn't very good for you.

* Do English people work hard? (= English people in general)

#2 Particular people or things (with the)

* We took the children to the zoo. (= a particular group, perhaps the speaker's own children)

* The film wasn't very good but I liked the music. (= the music in the film)

* All the cars in this car park belong to people who work here.

* Can you pass the sugar, please? (= the sugar on the table)

* Do the English people you know work hard? (= only the English people you know, not English people in general)

C. The difference between 'something in general' and 'something in particular' is not always very clear. Compare these sentences:

#1 In general (without 'the')

* I like working with people. (= people in general)

* I like working with people who are lively. (not all people, but 'people who are lively' is still a general idea)

* Do you like coffee? (= coffee in general)

* Do you like strong black coffee? (not all coffee, but 'strong black coffee' is still a general idea)

#2 Particular people or things (with the)

* I like the people I work with. (= a particular group of people)

* Did you like the coffee we had after our meal last night? (= particular coffee)

 

 

EXERCISES

74.1 In this exercise you have to write whether you like or dislike these things:

boxing cats fast food restaurants football hot weather mathematics opera small children rock music zoos

Choose FOUR of these things and begin your sentences with one of these:

I like .../ I don't like... I don't mind... I love .../ I hate... I'm interested in .../ I'm not interested in ...

1. _I don't like hot weather very much._

2. ---

3. ---

4. ---

5. ---

74.2 Complete the sentences using one of the following. Use the where necessary.

(the) basketball (the) questions (the) history (the) hotels (the) meat (the) lies (the) information (the) patience (the) people (the) water (the) grass (the) spiders

1. My favourite sport is basketball.

2. The information we were given wasn't correct.

3. Many people are afraid of ---.

4. A vegetarian is somebody who doesn't eat ---.

5. The test wasn't very difficult. I answered all --- without difficulty.

6. Do you know --- who live next door?

7. --- is the study of the past.

8. George always tells the truth. He never tells ---.

9. We couldn't find anywhere to stay in the town. All --- were full.

10. --- in the pool didn't look very clean, so we didn't go for a swim.

11. Don't sit on ---. It's wet after the rain.

12. You need --- to teach young children.

74.3 Choose the correct form, with or without the.

1. I'm afraid of _dogs/the dogs._ ('dogs' is correct)

2. Can you pass _salt/the salt_, please? ('the salt' is correct)

3. _Apples/The apples_ are good for you.

4. Look at _apples/the apples_ on that tree! They're very big.

5. _Women/The women_ live longer than men/the men.

6. I don't drink _tea/the tea._ I don't like it'

7. We had a very nice meal. _Vegetables/The vegetables_ were especially good.

8. _Life/The life_ is strange sometimes. Some very strange things happen.

9. I like _skiing/the skiing_ but I'm not very good at it.

10. Who are _people/the people_ in this photograph?

11. What makes _people/the people_ violent? What causes aggression/the aggression?

12. _All books/All the books_ on the top shelf belong to me.

13. Don't stay in that hotel. It's very noisy and _beds/the beds_ are very uncomfortable.

14. A pacifist is somebody who is against _war/the war._

15. _First World War/The First World War_ lasted from 1914 until 1918.

16. One of our biggest social problems is _unemployment/the unemployment._

17. Ron and Brenda got married but _marriage/the marriage_ didn't last very long.

18. _Most people/The most people_ believe that _marriage/the marriage_ and _family life/the family life_ are the basis of _society/the society._

 

 

UNIT 75. The (4) (The giraffe/the telephone/the piano etc.; the + adjective)

A. Study these sentences:

* The giraffe is the tallest of all animals.

* The bicycle is an excellent means of transport.

* When was the telephone invented?

* The dollar is the currency (= money) of the United States.

In these examples, the... does not mean one particular thing. The giraffe one particular type I animal, not one particular giraffe. We use the (+ a singular countable noun) in this way to talk about a type of animal, machine etc.

In the same way we use the for musical instruments:

* Can you play the guitar?

* The piano is my favourite instrument.

Compare a:

* I'd like to have a guitar.

* We saw a giraffe at the zoo.

Note that we use man (= human beings in general/the human race) without 'the':

* What do you know about the origins of man? (not 'the man')

B. The + adjective

We use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about groups of people, especially:

the young the old the elderly the rich the poor the unemployed the homeless the sick the disabled the injured the dead

The young = young people, the rich = rich people etc.:

* Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor?

* The homeless need more help from the government.

These expressions are always plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a young' or 'an unemployed'. You must say 'a young man', 'an unemployed woman' etc. Note also that we say 'the poor' (not 'the poors'), 'the young' (not 'the youngs') etc.

C. The + nationality

You can use the with some nationality adjectives to mean 'the people of that country'. For example:

* The French are famous for their food. (= the people of France)

* Why do the English think they are so wonderful? (= the people of England) In the same way you can say:

the Spanish the Dutch the British the Irish the Welsh

Note that the French/the English etc. are plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a French/an English'. You have to say 'a Frenchman/an Englishwoman' etc.

You can also use the + nationality words ending in -ese (the Chinese/the Sudanese etc.):

* The Chinese invented printing.

These words can also be singular (a Japanese, a Sudanese).

Also: the Swiss/a Swiss (plural or singular)

With other nationalities, the plural noun ends in -s. For example:

an Italian a Mexican a Scot a Turk (the) Italians (the) Mexicans (the) Scots (the) Turks

 

 

EXERCISES

75.1 Answer the questions. Choose the right answer from the box. Don't forget the. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1. animals: tiger elephant rabbit cheetah giraffe kangaroo

2. birds: eagle penguin swan owl parrot robin

3. inventions: telephone wheel telescope laser helicopter typewriter

4. currencies: dollar lira escudo rupee peseta yen

1. a. Which of the animals is tallest? _the giraffe._

b. Which animal can run fastest?

c. Which of these animals is found in Australia?

2. a. Which of these birds has a long neck?

b. Which of these birds cannot fly?

c. Which bird flies at night?

3. a. Which of these inventions is oldest?

b. Which one is most recent?

c. Which one is especially important for astronomy?

4 a. What is the currency of India?

b. What is the currency of Portugal?

c. What is the currency of your country?

75.2 Put in the or a where necessary. If the sentence is already complete leave an empty space(-)

1. When was _the_ telephone invented?

2. Can you play ---music instrument?

3. Jill plays --- violin in an orchestra.

4. There was --- piano in the corner of the room.

5. Can you play --- piano?

6. Our society is based on --- family.

7. Martin comes from --- large family.

8. When was --- paper first made?

9. --- computer has changed the way we live.

75.3 Complete these sentences using the + one of these adjectives:

injured poor rich sick unemployed young

1. _The young_ have the future in their hands.

2. Ambulances arrived at the scene of the accident and took --- to hospital.

3. Life is all right if you have a job, but things are not so easy for ---.

4. Julia has been a nurse all her life. She has spent her life caring for ---.

5. In England there is an old story about a man called Robin Hood. It is said that he robbed --- and gave the money to ---.

75.4 What do you call the people of these countries?

1. Canada?

one person (a/an ...): a Canadian

the people in general: the Canadian

2. Germany?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

3. France?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

4. Russia?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

5. China?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

6. Brazil?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

7. England?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

8. and your country?

one person (a/an ...):

the people in general:

 

 


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 578


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