There are many different professions in the world. All of them are very interesting and important. Nowadays, more and more women work in aviation field. Women can be pilots and navigators, flight attentants and controllers, custom officers and reservation clerks. Of course, we can’t meet a woman-pilot very often, because it is considered to be more men profession. We can see many good examples even from the past, when our brave women-pilots were fighting during the Great Patriotic War against fastists.
In order to be a pilot, or a stewardness you leave to be very healthy. All people who fly have been carefully selected for their ability to fly safely. They transport passengers and cargo.
Today we can see a lot of young boys and girls who fly as flight attendants. They help to make the passengers’ flights safe, comfortable and enjoyable. When the passengers come aboard, the stewardnesses greet them, check their tickets and assist them with their coats and small luggage. In the air they answer all your questions about the flight, weather and so on. They take care of the passengers during the flight, serve cocktails and precooked meals. Like other members of the crew, they are responsible to the captain.
There are many women who works air traffic controllers. I think it is a very interesting and difficult job. The controllers are the guardians of the airways. They coordinate flights to prevent accidents and minimize delays in take-offs and landings. Some controllers regulate airport traffic, some regulate flights between airports. The controllers are responsible for the safety of flights. Nowadays it is necessary to know English perfectly well, because the controllers use it very everyday while communicating with the foreign aircraft. Phraseology and aviation terminology are very obligatory while communicating with the aircraft. English is an integral part in the aviation preparation and in aviation programmes. The pilots, the controllers need profound knowledge in the chosen field. It is necessary to know foreign languages for the flight attendants as well, because they fly abroad and meet foreigners on board the plane, they have to communicate with them, give them any information they need.
We can often meet women directors or woman managers of the airports. They are responsible either to the local government authorities or to the owners of the airport. They make and enforce airports rules and regulations, plan and supervise maintenance programmes, make recommendations, keep records and make required reports and so on.
1. What do you think about women professions in aviation?
2. Is it strange to see a woman-pilot?
3. Do aviation people have to wear a uniform?
4. What are the flight attendants responsible for?
5. Who are they responsible to and why?
6. What are the air traffic controllers responsible for?
7. Why have you chosen a profession of an air traffic controller?
8. What uniform would you suggest for women in aviation?
ENGLISH AS MEANS OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION
English is the most universal language in the world. In my opinion it is impossible to do without foreign languages because of expanding economic and cultural ties of Ukraine with other countries of the world. It is official language in over 40 countries. A truly educated man should know at least one foreign language, read books in the original, use personal computers, take part in cultural and educational exchanges with over countries.
English is everywhere. It is on signs, clothing, soft drinks and other goods around the world. Approximately 400 million people speak English as a mother tongue and nearly twice as many use it as a second language. Half of the world's scientific literature is in English. It is the language of computer technology. You will hardly be able to find a good job unless you master the English language.
Knowledge of foreign languages helps to promote cultural educational and technical co-operation among nations. That is why one of the characteristic features of life in our country today is a great interest in the study of foreign languages - chiefly English. The use of English in diplomacy, commerce and science is evidence of it's importance.
The statistics of the world's mail, its telexes and cables are in English. So are more than half of the world's technical and scientific periodicals. It is the language of sports and glamour: the official language of the Olympics and the Miss Universe Competition. English is the official voice of the air and the sea, and of Christianity: it is the ecumenical language of the World Council of Churches. Five of the broadcasting companies in the world (CBS, NBS, ABC, BBC, and CBC) transmit in English to audiences that regularly exceed one hundred million.
English is one of the ICAO languages. It is very necessary to have a good command of it because we are going to work for the Air Companies and at the big cities. We have to know not only General English perfectly well, but English phraseology as well. We will communicate with the foreign crews, understand them and give them the instructions.
Of course my English is still rather far from being perfect. But I know that everything depends on myself and I will do my best to know it well. I read a lot of literature in English, especially the literature, concerning my professional interests and knowledge, some magazines with interesting and amazing facts and so on.
English has no equals!
1. Why is knowledge of English very important today?
2. Why should an educated person know at least one foreign language?
3. Why have you chosen English to study?
4. Do you agree that English is the world's most important language in politics, science and culture?
5. What do you like most about English?
6. Why is English the official voice of the air and the sea?
7. Are you satisfied with your knowledge of the English language?
8. Are you going to continue learning English in future?
STATE FLIGHT ACADEMY OF UKRAINE
The State Flight Academy of Ukraine functions as a flight training establishment since 1951. Since that time more than 120. 000 aviation specialists have been prepared for Ukraine and other CIS countries and about 4000 aviation specialists for 51 other countries. The Academy maintains close contacts with its foreign partners – training establishments from Russia, the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Holland and many other countries.
The Academy’s training technical facilities are a unique basis for aviation specialist training and include a number of specialized departments, the most important of which are:
- Flight Operation Institute (FOI);
- Air Navigation Institute (ANI);
- A net work of flight training airfields;
- ATS and other services;
- Highly qualified teaching and flight-instructor staff work at the Academy. Aviation specialists training is conducted in both internal and external forms.
There is a park of training aircraft of the following types: Jak-18T; An-2; L-410; An-24; An-26.
The students of the Academy (the cadets) – citizens of Ukraine enjoy full state material maintenance, they are provided with hostels, unilities, they are paid grants (scholarships).
The Aviators’ Palace of Culture, a stadium, sports grounds, gymnasiums, a complex of Sports facilities, a library, a discoteque are at the students’ disposal.
There are many specialized classrooms and lecture rooms at our Academy. A lot of computors are at cadets’ disposal.
English is considered to be one of the main subjects in aviation preparation of a specialist.
There are two simulator centres: a controller simulator and a flight simulator. Cadets can develop their skills there.
It is very honourable to be a cadet of the Academy.
When did our Academy begin to function as a flight training establishment?
How many aviation specialists have been prepared by our Aca-demy?
What countries does our Academy maintain close connections with?
What are the main departments of the Academy?
What can you say about the students’ life?
Is the time of training at the Academy regarded as time of military service?
How often do you go to the Aviators’ Palace of Culture?
Do you go in for sports?
Do you like English and are you good at it?
Why is it necessary to know English?
GENERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (ICAO)
The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by a conference in Chicago in November and December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a party. According to the terms of the Constitution the Organisation is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The chief officers are the President of the Co-uncil and the Secretary General. The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every three years, reviewing in details the work of the Organisation and setting policy for the coming years, it also sets a triennial budget.
The Council, the governing body, which is elected by the assembly for a three-year term, is composed of 36 States. The Assembly chooses the Council Member States under three headings: States of chief importance in air transport, States which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for air navigation, and States whose designation will ensure that all major areas of the world are represented. As the governing body, the Council gives continuing direction of the work of ICAO. It is in the Council that Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted and incorporated in Annexes to the Convention of International Civil Aviation. The Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission (technical matters), the Air Transport Committee (economic matters), the Committee of Joint Support of Air Navigation Ser-vices and the Finance Committee.
The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is divided into five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Co-operation Bureau, the Legal Bureau and the Bureau of Administration and Services. In order that the work of the Secretary shall reflect a truly international approach, professional personnel are recruited on a broad geographical basis.
ICAO works in close co-operation with other members of the United Nations family such as: the World Meteorological Organisation, the International Telecommunication Union; the Universal Postal Union, the World Health Organisation and the International Maritime Organisation. Non-governmental Organisations which also participate in ICAO's work include the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the Airports Council International, the International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations, and the International Council of Aircraft Owner and Pilot Associations.
To ensure safety, regularity and efficiency of international civil aviation operations, international standardisation is essential in all matters affecting them, that is, all matters in the operation of aircraft, aircraft airworthiness, and the numerous facilities and services required in the support such as aerodromes, telecommunications, navigation aids, meteorology, air traffic services, search and rescue, aeronautical information services and aeronautical charts. A common understanding between the countries of the world on these matters is absolutely necessary.
To achieve the highest degree of uniformity world-wide whenever this will facilitate and improve safety, regularity and efficiency, the ICAO Council adopts
Recommended Practices (SARPs)
Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS)
1. What is the Constitution of ICAO?
2. What is the Organization made up?
3. What are the chief officers of the Council?
4. What is the Assembly?
5. How often does the Assembly meet?
6. How many States are there in the Council?
7. What is the Council assisted by?
8. How many divisions is the Secretariat divided into?
9. Does ICAO work in close co-operation with other members?
10. Why is a common understanding between the countries absolutely necessary?
11. What does the ICAO Council adopt?
Aviation jobs are very necessary and important. They are: pilots, co-pilots, flight-engineers, flight-attendants, air traffic controllers, airport directors and many other professions.
Pilots and co-pilots are skilled and highly trained professionals who have been carefully selected for their ability to fly safely. They transport passengers and cargo. The pilot is in charge of the aeroplane and supervises all other crew members. The co-pilot assists the captain in air-to-ground communications, monitoring flight and engine equipment, and in operating the aeroplane’s.
Flight engineers are members of flight crews who make sure the mechanical and electrical devices aboard aeroplanes work properly. They assist the pilot and co-pilot in making pre-flight checks of instruments and equipment. Flight engineers watch instruments in the air and operate controls to regulate the performance of the engines, air conditioning and other equipment. The also keep records of engine performance and fuel consumption.
Flight attendants (also called stewardesses and stewards) are always on board the planes. They help to make the passengers’ flights safe, comfortable and enjoyable. They are responsible to the captain like other members of the crew. As passengers come aboard, they greet them, check their tickets and assist them with their coats and small luggage. Flight attendants use the public address system to instruct passengers in the use of emergency equipment. They are ready to answer any passengers questions and serve cocktails and precooked meals.
Air traffic controllers are the guardians of the airways. They coordinate flights to prevent accidents and minimize delays in take-offs and landings. Some regulate airport traffic, other regulate flights between airports. ATC controllers give the pilots the instructions to taxi, take off, climb, descend, land and soon. Route controllers communicate with pilots by radio and use radar and other electronic equipment to help keep aerodromes on course. They also warn pilots about nearly aircraft and other possible hazards.
Airports are usually operated by a director or manager responsible either to the owners of the airport or to the local government authorities.
He has been described as a ‘mixture of aviation expert, real estate operator, construction engineer, electronic wizard, management genius and politician’. He is involved in such activities as the following: making and enforcing airport rules and regulations; planning and supervising maintenance programmes; negotiating leases with airport tenants, such as aircraft repair stations, terminal concessionaires and airlines; surveying future needs of the airport and making recommendations; keeping records and making required reports; setting up the airport budget; training and supervising the employees.
1. What professions in aviation do you know?
2. What are pilots and co-pilots responsible for?
3. What do flight engineers do aboard the planes?
4. What are flight attendants responsible for?
5. Who are co-pilots, flight engineers and flight attendants responsible to?
6. What are air traffic controllers responsible for?
7. What is an airport director responsible for?
8. Who is an airport director responsible to?
9. Why are aviation professions very important?
10 Why have you chosen a profession of a controller?
THE BIGGEST AIRCRAFT CRASHES IN THE WORLD
The safety of flights is the main requirements and tasks in aviation. Everybody of us, of course, is, was or will be a passenger. There is no need to mention that safety is the main thing in the air. The famous pilot Valery Chkalov used to say: ‘One engine is 100% of risk and danger and four engines 400%!’ And he was right. But nowadays it is possible air navigation if there is engine failure.
Many factors can be the problems to the aircraft. They are: snow, heavy rain, fog, mist, thunderstorms, showers and so on. We can say that meteorological conditions influence upon the aircraft. The intensive air traffic growth can be reason No2.
It is essential to ensure safety, regularity and efficiency of international civil aviation operations, international standardisation in all matters affecting them.
ICAO takes efforts on development the recommendations based on the analysis of aircraft crashes and accidents in the international civil aviation. The main direction is the common influence of a man-aircraft and the environment.
According to the world statistics and as ICAO data report, the ¾ of all aviation crashes are happening about 3 kilometres from the runway.
Some publications were published in the ‘Air and Cosmos’ and ‘Aircraft Engineering’ magazines about the analysis of Boeing Company of passenger aircraft maintenance for flying period of 30 years. 80% of all accidents occur during take off and landing procedures.
The accidents distribution is as following:
- taxiing – 3,3%;
- take off run – 17,6%;
- take off – 11,1%;
- climbing – 6,5%;
- cruising flight – 5,2%;
- descending – 3,3%;
- approach – 11,8%;
- landing – 16,3%;
- landing roll – 24,8%.
Take off and landing are the most dangerous legs of a flight, because shortage of time or altitude to understand and analyze the arising problems connected with mechanical, meteorological or human factors.
According to the Swedish magazine ‘Actual Safety’, Aeroflot aviation company is the most dangerous air company in the world. Every 19 flights of a million end in crashes.
Thaiwan occupies the second place – about 12 aircraft crashes and accidents; Egypt – 12; India – 11; Turkey – 11; China – 9; the Philippines – 9; South Korea – 9; Poland – 7.
The maximum number of passengers killed in one accident was 583 people, when Boeing 747 of KLM Company and Boeing 747 of Pan American Company collided on the ground in the Canary Islands. 520 people died on board Jal Boeing 747 in the vicinity of Tokyo.
American ‘South-West’ aviation company is the safest aviation company in the world. This company has had no accidents or crashes at all so far.
I’d like to tell you about the collision of a Kazakhstan Ilyushin 76 with a Saudia Boeing 747 on 12 November 1996 a few miles from DPN VOR near New Delhi. The controller apparently did nothing wrong. He cleared inbound Kazakhstan KZA 1907 to descend to FL 150 and this was confirmed by the crew. The controller also cleared the departing Saudia (SVA 763) to climb to FL 140, also confirmed by pilot. The Saudia called ATC, reporting FL 140 ‘for higher’ to which the controller replied: ‘Maintain FL 140, stand by for higher’, but this transmission is apparently not acknowledged back by the SVA pilot on the transcript. The next exchange is to warn the KZA that there is traffic preventing his further descent, again repeating to KZA to maintain FL 150. ‘Maintain FL 150, Identified traffic 12 o’clock, reciprocal, Saudi 747,14 miles, report in sight’ The KZA replied ‘Roger, 1907’ and the KZA followed with ‘Report how many miles?’ The controller replies again ‘14 miles’. Then a second traffic information is passed to the KZA ‘Traffic is 13 miles level 140’ to which the KZA replies only by ‘1907’. There is apparently no further R/T exchange before the collision. From this of course no firm clue can be deduced as to what caused the collision, but should this transcript be correct, it clears a few hypotheses that were printed in the media.
All aviation companies in the world compete in aviation safety. Every company wants to minimize causes, which may lead to accidents and human losses. And each of them hopes to win in this vital competition.
1. Why is safety of flights so necessary and important?
2. What are the factors that can influence the flights?
3. What is the safest aviation company in the world?
4. Have you read about any aircraft crashers and accidents?
5. What films have you seen about aircraft crashes?
6. What are the most dangerous parts of a flight?
7. What do you know about the statistic analysis of aircraft accidents?