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Future Simple

. I shall ask. You (he, she, it) will ask Shall I ask? Will you (he, she, it) ask? I shall not ask. You (he, she, it) will not ask.
. We shall ask. You (they) will ask. Shall we ask? Will you (they) ask? We shall not ask. You (they) will not ask.

 

Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with I`ll + a suitable verb.

1.I`m too tired to walk home. I think I`ll get a taxi.

2.It`s a bit cold in this room. Is it? on the heating then.

3.We haven`t got any milk. Oh, haven`t we? and get some.

4.Do you want me to do the washing-up? No, it is all right. it.

5.I don`t know how to use this computer. OK, you.

6.Would you like tea or coffee? coffee, please.

7.Goodbye! have a nice holiday. Thanks. you a postcard.

8.Thank you for lending me your camera. it back to you on Monday, OK?

9.Are you coming with us? No, I think here.

 

Exercise 2. Read the situation and write sentences with I think I`ll or I don`t think I`ll .

1.It`s a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I`ll close the window.

2.You are feeling tired and it`s quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think .

3.A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk. You say: Thank you but .

4.You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don`t want to play. You say: I don`t think .

5.You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don`t want to go.

 

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with will + one of these verbs:

To be come get like look meet pass

1. Don`t worry about your exam. I`m sure you`ll pass.

2. Why don`t you try on this jacket? It nice on you.

3. You must meet George sometime. I think you him.

4.It`s raining. Don`t go out. You wet.

5. They`ve invited me to their house. They offended if I don`t go.

6. I`ve invited Sue to the party but I don`t think she .

7. I wonder where I 20 years from now.

Unit4

Exercise 1. Read and translate the text

Civil Engineering

The term engineering is a modern one. The New Marriam-Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word engineering as the practical application of scientific and mathematical principles. Nowadays the term engineering means, as a rule, the art of designing, constructing, or using engines. But this word is now applied in a more extended sense. It is applied also to the art of executing such works as the objects of civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical appliances are used. Engineering is divided into many branches. The most important of them are: civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining, military, marine, and sanitary engineering.

While the definition civil engineering dates back only two centuries, the profession of civil engineer is as old as civilized life. It started developing with the rise of ancient Rome. In order to understand clearly what civil engineering constitutes nowadays, let us consider briefly the development of different branches of engineering. Some form of building and utilization of the materials and forces of nature have always been necessary for the people from the prehistoric times. The people had to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the conflict with nature.



First the word civil engineering was used to distinguish the work of the engineer with a non-military purpose from that of a military engineer. And up to about the middle of the 18th century there were two main branches of engineering civil and military. The former included all those branches of the constructive art not directly connected with military operations and the constructions of fortifications, while the latter, military engineering, concerned itself with the applications of science and the utilization of building materials in the art of war.

But as time went on, the art of civil engineering was enriched with new achievements of science. With the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and later there came a remarkable series of mechanical inventions, great discoveries in electrical science and atomic energy. It led to differentiation of mechanical, electrical, nuclear engineering.

It is a well-known fact that with the invention of the steam engine and the growth of factories a number of civil engineers became interested in the practical application of the science of mechanics and thermodynamics to the design of machines. They separated themselves from civil engineering, and were called mechanical engineers.

With the development of the science of electricity, there appeared another branch of the engineering electrical engineering. It is divided now into two main branches: communications engineering and power engineering.

In the middle of the 20th century there appeared some other new branches of engineering nuclear engineering and space engineering. The former is based on atomic physics, the latter on the achievements of modern science and engineering.

At present there are hundreds of subdivisions of engineering, but they all, at one time or another, branched off from civil engineering.

The term civil engineering has two distinct meanings. In the widest and oldest sense it includes all non-military branches of engineering as it did two centuries ago. But in its narrower, and at the present day more correct sense, civil engineering includes mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, metallurgical, and mining engineering.

Here are some fields of civil engineering:

1. Housing, industrial, and agricultural construction.

2. Structural engineering comprises the construction of all fixed structures with their foundations.

3. The construction of highways and city streets and pavements.

4. The construction of railroads.

5. The construction of harbours and canals.

6. Hydraulic engineering which includes the construction of dams and power plants.

The above enumeration will make clear the vast extent of the field of civil engineering.

 


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 144


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