Topic 10. International tourism as a specific form of trade in services.
The purpose of the lectures: To examine the role of the international tourism trade.
Key words: management tourism
1. International tourism as a form of foreign economic relations.
2. Export and import of tourist services.
International tourism as a form of foreign economic relations. International tourism - this is a very complex and unique phenomenon, which plays a major role in the development of statehood. In this regard, of paramount importance to study the impact of international tourism in the national economy and world trade.
Specific features of international tourism.
International tourism as a form of external economic relations has a number of specific features. The most important of these is that there is traded on the world market are such goods and services, which do not have the ability to direct foreign exchange. Services provided in the form of a tourist hotel accommodation, meals, excursions, laundry, dry cleaning, etc., are in the nature of the goods, not to mention the goods themselves. It should be noted that the traded not only goods and services but also the natural and socio-economic tourist and recreational resources. But this buying and selling, they are not rejected by the territory, as is the case in traditional exports. Foreign exchange receipts from foreign tourism, as well as revenues from domestic tourism, its elements are presented in a kind of recreational attractions for rent, and the healing properties of a unique territory.
The second such feature is the fact that materialized labor expended on the production of services and goods sold on the place of creation. This takes place here is not the movement of goods to the consumer, but on the contrary, the buyer arrives at the place of production of the goods - services. This reduces the circulation of capital. This is the main characteristic of international tourism creates a number of conditions, distinguishes it from the rest of export items. Firstly, the buyer (the tourist) will pay for transportation costs. Secondly, the acquisition of foreign tourists souvenirs and other goods during their stay in the country can be considered as most profitable form of foreign trade operations, as in this case the sale of such goods produced at retail prices of the domestic market. A number of industries in different countries working on this "internal export". For example, in Japan by foreign tourists buy a significant part of domestically produced radios and video equipment, cameras; Switzerland - watches, chocolate and cheese; France - perfume and fashion salons products; Italy - shoes and leather goods; UK - whiskey, etc.
Countries suppliers of tourists and countries hosting tourists.
For international tourism characterized by the same types of operations that have been established in foreign trade, namely exports, imports and re-exports, although its form these operations in the international tourism have their own specific features. The main distinguishing feature of international tourism as a form of international economic relations lies in the fact that the acquisition of services takes place, as well as any foreign trade transactions through foreign counterparts, which may be as a tourist agency and a foreign tourist himself. In this regard, under the export in the international tourism refers to the reception of foreign guests, and for imports - the direction of the tourists of the country abroad. Somewhat more complicated in international tourism is the case with re-export. From a purely theoretical point of view for this category must sign all foreign tourists who bought tour at the Tourism
Organization of the country to travel to a third country. However, due to the imperfections of the existing accounting system, select this category of tourists practically very difficult. Therefore, although the actual re-export operations are becoming more common in international tourism, their performance is dissolved in export operations.
Exports through tourism has several advantages. One of them is to expand the export market for goods, which in other cases would be exported to the usual channels. Further, this makes it possible to export selling of foreign currency over a wide range of goods and services, which otherwise would not ever be sold for foreign currency. It should be added that the goods sold to foreign tourists, and are subject to tax in the foreign currency.
International tourism can have, and has in fact, in many countries a significant impact on the level and structure of the national income of the State in its balance of payments. Under certain conditions, the development of foreign tourism can be directed to the acceleration of economic and social development of the country.
Tourism in the economy reflects the division of labor in which the main role played by countries with highly developed economies. As is known the predominant part of the foreign trade accounts for trade between industrialized countries. A similar situation is developing in the international tourist exchange. The majority of tourist arrivals in the world is between the industrialized countries, which are characterized by a high percentage of exit of citizens abroad (USA, France, UK and so on.). As well as between them and the countries at an average level of economic development (Greece, Portugal, Turkey, etc.), and developing countries (Tunisia, Thailand, etc.). Accordingly, the World Tourism Organization, the following definition is: "countries that are primarily providers of tourist country" and "countries that are in the first place to receive tourists."
All tourism theorists emphasize the exclusive economic profitability and customer service receiving foreign tourists as well as point to the great rewards of orientation of the economy on tourism development. For example, the backbone of the economy in the Bahamas is a foreign tourism. There GDP service sector, including tourism, is 60% of national income, while the industry - only 10%. And in Barbados receipts from foreign tourism exceed the income from the production of sugar - the main manufacturing industries. However, one can argue that countries - suppliers of tourists are economically disadvantaged, citing the drain of foreign currency. After all, the possibility of leaving citizens abroad already speaks for itself on the high standard of living in the country, the growth of welfare and of sufficient duration holidays. It should be noted that the development of tourist relations between the states has a bilateral nature. Increase in the number of foreign tourists in a country contributes to the establishment of foreign exchange reserves. In addition, foreign currency funds spent in the host country, return to the supplying country, but indirectly, by increasing imports. For example, the management of the Bundesbank (Germany) encourages the administrative authorities to take no action to reduce the deficit on tourist operations. In their opinion, the expenditures made by citizens of Germany during their travels abroad, do not represent final loss to the country of foreign currency. Much of the currency returns to Germany as is the purchase of goods manufactured there. In other words, the West German tourists are provided to those countries that they visit, a kind of "credits" that they need to trade Germany. And any restriction of international tourist exchanges may lead to imbalances in foreign trade.
Export and import of tourist services. In economic terms, active tourism (tourist reception) can be treated as export of tourist goods and passive turizm- (leaving citizens) - imports. The ability to exchange goods and services you purchase through the tourist exports, leading to activation of internal trade, to identify new opportunities of traditional exports, and, in principle, could lead to the replacement of traditional exports tovarov_ export of tourist goods and services.
The calculation of the efficiency of passive and active tourism is not particularly difficult. The difficulties begin with the collection of practical information, as there are no data on the volumes and types of foreign tourists in demand for products produced locally. This demand can not be recorded, but it can be assumed. The liberalization of the requirements related to border crossing and exchange of money, covers some of the sources of information. Similarly, you can define a number of tourist arrivals and the average duration of their stay in the country. Difficulties statistics of tourism consumption in the fact that the consumption takes place in the host country, and purchased goods are exported to the country of residence. These products usually are not registered at the border. From this viewpoint, active tourism can be defined as "invisible export" and passive - as "invisible import".
One of the solutions that contribute to the further development of trade, could become a tourist food exports allow countries where tourists come to carry out a traditional export. As an example we can point to Bulgaria and Spain, which successfully replace the traditional exports of consumer goods export tourism. Developing countries are beginning to find an opportunity to maintain their exports through tourism imports. The economic effect of the provision is that a passive tourism gives the host country currency, which in turn have a positive impact on national income. As a result, the host country of the tourists tend to use the surplus, the balance of tourism to stimulate imports from the country providing tourists. The positive balance of camping for any country to import far more goods than it would have been possible without the tourist exports. Even in industrialized countries, this type of exchange - is the way to maintain and develop their own industrial and agricultural exports.
Tourism can be an important factor in the growth in the countries where the limited export constrains economic development. Foreign tourism can be considered as one of the most important levers of accelerating economic development, activating the balance of payments and increasing foreign exchange reserves of the country.
The calculation of the efficiency of international exchange, export or import of certain products and services, is based on a comparison of the costs incurred in the currency resulting from traditional exports, and foreign currency obtained in the tourism exports. This calculation leads to the conclusion of the feasibility of tourism exports, as in this case, the calculation is performed in retail prices, whereas the traditional exports - at wholesale prices, which are often higher than the world.
Tourist trips abroad, as well as imports, causing a reduction in domestic demand. At the same time, we must remember that passive tourism creates in the country from which the tourists went, no material goods. If the proposal is limited to consumer products, reduce imports of tourist demand and thus mitigates the lack of internal equilibrium in the market of consumer goods. In addition, to support the tourist imports, the country should have a currency received less than they sell to tourists.
In addition, the money will return to the country, supplying tourists by expanding import orders. In this situation, the population is able to travel without restriction in tourist trips, and the state budget does not feel at the same negative impact. To fully assess the impact of tourism exports and imports in the economy of the state is possible only when taken into account all the factors of production, investment requirements for the development of tourism and international relations of the State. A more detailed examination of trends of tourism deserves imports due to tourism exports, that is, the formula of "tourist for a tourist."
As an economic category of the international tourism market is a sphere of commodity-money relations, the specifics of which can be formulated in the following principles:
- The market is complex, that is it serve the supply and demand of goods and services;
- Consumption of goods and services taking place in the country of origin. This provision can be considered as a profitable form of foreign trade enterprises, as the sale takes place at retail prices of the domestic market, which is much higher retail price. The retail price is known, includes the imposition of internal taxes, while exports to such a tax, often not charged;
- Demand has a pronounced subjective. As a form of consumption it is directly proportional to the size of the personal income of consumers. With increasing prosperity, accordingly, changing the ratio between the cost of a permanent place of residence or on vacation, moving expenses is important from an economic point of view, the change in costs. The increase in tourism expenditure at rest, of course, does not entail a reduction in costs in the place of permanent residence to zero. Expenditures of tourists during the holidays, tend to be higher than the costs incurred by the community for the same period. And only at a high enough level of society the costs of tourism are significant. Travel the need arises and is formed at a certain level of development of the productive forces, with the appropriate socio-economic conditions. The society-wide tourism expenditure may be significant only when a certain level of wealth. There is a gradual transformation of the regular budget tourist. Therefore, this process is most clearly seen in developed countries;
- The offer in tourism is extremely inflexible. This is due to the fact that production capacities are clearly defined, and can not be subjected to rapid changes following the change in demand, which is subject to sharp seasonal fluctuations. Due to the fact that most of this demand constitute travel services, development proposals require significant investment in tourism infrastructure and fixed assets;
-spetsifikoy operation of tourist enterprises is the impossibility of creating a strategic reserve. The lack of it can not compensate for a significant load of enterprises in "low season", the expansion proposal in the "peak season". Unused room, space in the aircraft, will be lost for the company for the entire period of inactivity.
The impact of international tourism on various aspects of society is multifaceted and diverse. The development of foreign tourism, expansion and deepening of the tourist activity contributes to the stabilization of the balance of payments, leading to an increase in national income and a means of political normalization. As an important stimulus in boosting foreign trade exchange, tourism plays an important role in the development of international services. On the other hand, as one of the most important aspects of foreign economic activity, increased international tourist traffic has an impact on the expansion of foreign economic relations between the states, it gives the possibility of using the experience of other nations in wealth creation and cultural values. As a result, the importance of international tourism as one of the types of foreign economic relations will steadily grow.
1. Tourism Management?
2. Imports of tourist services.?
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