Topic 7. Classification, types and forms of modern tourism
The purpose of the lectures: To study the nature of this classification in the allocation of certain forms and types of tourism in different directions, and the quality and tsennosti and what signs are put in its foundation.
Keywords: ecotourist, religious tourism, tour
1. Classification of modern tourism.
2. International tourism
Classification of modern tourism. Classification of modern tourism is dictated primarily by the need of development planning and organization territorialnoy tourist facilities, tourist traffic, and tourism in general, just as the spatial socio-economic phenomenon. The essence of this classification is to allocate certain forms and types of turizma in different directions, and the quality and value - determined by what the signs taken as its basis.
So far, not made clear classification of tourism. This is due primarily to the fact that it is impossible to distinguish prakticheski pure forms and types of modern tourism. Especially that last characteristic of permanent processes of differentiation and integration of the individual species. But the classification is necessary because it allows us to solve a number of problems of development and territorial organization of tourism and its infrastructure, determine the demand for certain types of tourist services and, on that basis razrabatyvat plans for development of the material and technical base of tourism.
Tourism can be classified on various grounds: the target, the nature, timing and duration of travel, method of travel, accommodation facilities, the qualitative composition of the participants travel, and others. But the crucial still belongs travel destination. However, the traveling, the tourist poses in front of more than one goal. But depending on the individual needs of the tourist one of them becomes dominant.
In contrast to the forms and classes, types of tourism are very diverse. They depend on a number of factors, the most important of which are:
- The presence and duration of free time;
- Age, sex, state of health, level of spiritual razvitiya, personal taste of people and their material blagosostoyanie;
- The diversity of natural conditions and seasonality;
- The availability of certain vehicles, and others.
Taking into account the objectives, conditions, direction and scale of the development of modern tourism, it can be divided into forms and types of classes (with the species.
Depending on the public function and production technology are three basic forms of tourism: lechebny, recreational and sports and informative, reflecting the basic range of human needs in the reconstruction and development of physical and spiritual strength.
Concern for the preservation and strengthening of health, increasing their ability to work is one of the main tasks in the field of social policy of any state in the decision which plays an important role tourism vypolnyayuschy certain medical functions, and as a form of leisure, having advantages over other types. Spa treatment is necessary to restore the health of people who have had the disease and the need to continue the treatment process.
Improvement through tourism - one of the ways to solve the problem and removal of off production and physical and mental fatigue rights. Proper organization and the widespread use of active rest (transitions on foot, by boat, bike, etc.) make people physically strong, increase their resilience to adverse conditions and influences vneshney environment. When recreational and sports tourism ispolzuyutsya restorative measures to human health, to eliminate fatigue, functional recovery of the most important systems of the body due to fatigue and increasing their ability to work. Essential in these conditions acquire dosage walking, hiking, ekskursii, entertainment events, air and sun baths, sea and river bathing, etc. Socio-economic importance of the function of tourism is very high, since it is aimed at improving the health of millions of people and to increase their ability to work. Without Ozdoev-rovitelnyh and sporting action can not be achieved the harmonious development of the younger generation, it is impossible to save energy and plastic materials neobhodimye for labor and social activity of the working population.
In the above forms, such as on three pillars, based all subsequent classification of tourism, ie its division into classes, types, species, variety. The basis of this division are a variety of features and criteria.
Depending on the focus and nature of tourist flows, as well as legal status, tourism is divided into two broad classes: domestic (national) and international (foreign). Domestic tourism - is puteshestviya citizens within their own country, without going beyond it. International tourism - a citizen traveling outside your home country, tourists travel from one country to another, or to several countries. Foreign tourism - is the arrival of foreign nationals to another country with tourist purposes. This division is inextricably linked with the other two raznovidnostyami international tourism - inbound and outbound, which differ in the direction of the tourist flow. The same tourist can be classified as enter and leave at the same time depending on whether, based on which country is described by its movement. There are countries of origin of tourists, which he left for the purpose of travel, and the country of destination, where it comes from. In the first case we are talking about the exit in the second - on vezdnom tourism. These terms are used in relation to foreign travel at the beginning of the trip. On the way back tourists just coming home.
International tourism. International tourism covers travel with tourist purposes outside the country of permanent residence. Thus traveling abroad is usually associated with the implementation of the so-called tourist formalities: the formulation of foreign passports and visas, customs clearance, currency and medical control, and others. And it is a major feature of international tourism and its difference from domestic tourism.
Simplification (tightening) of tourist formalities has a direct impact on the development of international turizma. Not enhances tourist travel difficult and tighten the procedure of registration of exit documents, violation of the terms of their consideration or arbitrary deviation, excessive fee; in the sphere of currency control the imposition of severe restrictions on foreign exchange, which determines the level of consumption of goods and services by tourists. Customs declarations and inspections may also act as a deterrent to tourist spending and lead to a decline in tourism. To all of the above should be added to language barriers, which, although not among the tourist formalnostey, but have an important impact on the development of tourist mezhdunarodnyh contacts.
Another aspect of international tourism is a significant impact on the balance of payments. Foreign tourists pay for goods and services, provide a flow of currency into the budget of the host country and the samym intensify its balance of payments. That is why the arrival of foreign tourists called "active" tourism. On the contrary, leaving the tourists expressed in the national currency outflow from the country of their permanent residence. International payments for tourism operations of this kind are recorded in the balance of payments of the liabilities strany "supplier" of tourists, and the tourism called "passivnym."
Despite significant differences internal and international tourism is closely linked. In fact, it's two parts of a whole - general tourism as a tourist population movement. The relationship of domestic and international tourism due to the fact that the producer of tourist goods and services is otechestvennoe the economy, consumers - like tourists nationals and foreigners alike. Tourist sector acquires a solid foundation only when he has a large domestic tourism market. It can be said that domestic tourism is the basis of development of international tourism without first no second.
Domestic tourism acts as a catalyst for international tourism. It promotes the development of new resources and recreational areas, the creation of basic tourism infrastructure, training, and thereby assist the process of harmonious integration of countries into the international tourist traffic in the international tourism industry. The interdependence of these two classes of tourism is the fact that the scale; the level and structure of domestic tourist traffic can judge the possibilities and prospects of development of international tourism.
In recent years, great progress has been private trips or ethnic tourism - visiting relatives, friends, or the homeland of their ancestors. They provide about 10% of the world tourist flow.
The so-called business tourism covers travel for official purposes without obtaining income on place of business. This includes travel to attend: congresses, meetings on-ing organizations diplomatic or other nature (except for persons holding positions in the visited country); scientific congresses, conferences, symposiums; production workshops and meetings; fairs, exhibitions and international events and other travel related to the professional activities of temporary visitor (commissioning, contracting, etc.). Business - is the most promising and highly profitable tourism industry.
The basis for further classification by type of tourism put different features: some of them are turistskomu travel and allow to describe it on the basis of the organization, logistics, duration and distance of the trip; Other tourist characterize the socio-demographic and economic tochek view.
By the nature of the organization of tourism is divided into: a) organized by the (planned); b) amateur and b) the informal ("wild"). Tourists meet their needs in different ways. They can get a corresponding set of services through tourism firm or without its participation, pay a visit to the complex service in advance or each service separately as its use on the site. Strictly regulate travel offered by tour operators and usually sold under the terms of the advance payment, and called organizovannym tourism. Guided tours for tourists acquire pre-agreed routes, length of stay, the volume of services provided through a special tourist marketing machine. Some of them prefer to tour with comprehensive services and other tourist services are limited partly by buying, for example, kursovku only for food.
Unlike organized, amateur and unorganized tourists make their trip on their own initiative and without the direct participation of tourism organizations. But there is a big difference from the amateur unorganized tourists.
Amateur tourists work in contact with the tourist organizations. This contact can be manifested in different ways: in providing tourist organizations advice for the travel, issuing tourist equipment rental, sometimes sending tourists to the top of the route, etc. In addition, amateur tourists always notify the relevant tourist organizations of their travel itinerary, the timing of the meeting. This allows the latter to control the ascent of the tourists and, if necessary, intervene in its process. As a rule, tourists are samoeyatelnym people involved in turstskih clubs and sections created at different companies, organizations and institutions.
There are individual and group tourism. The journey of an individual or a single family (up to five people, usually) at its own plan - an individual tourism, travel group (six to seven people or more) - a group tourism. Group tours are usually organized on the basis of common interests of their members. This may be the archaeological tours, art history or historical themes, collective journey, organized by amateurs or skiing safari trip with production objectives, etc. For the purposes of regional planning is very important indicators such as the density of social contacts, the number of holidaymakers expressed per unit area. Striving for maximum privacy can be called "centrifugal" and a maximum contact - "centripetal". Naturally, the territorial organization of centrifugal forms of recreation will differ significantly from the organization centripetal territorialnoy recreation. In the first case are characteristic dispersion of the service sector, small density of the transport network, extensive use of recreational resources. Microenvironment centripetal leisure activities close to the urban forms of recreation. Given the known contradictory individual, resorts zoning should combine quiet zone with a minimum of contact and with the maximum contact area.
On the basis of the mobility of tourism is divided into statsionarny and nomadic. It's a pretty conventional division as tourism, firstly necessarily associated with the movement from the place of residence to the place of rest, and, secondly, tourists, even in the so-called recreational areas characterized by high mobility. In the Baltic states, less than 10% of tourists spend all their time on the territory of recreation facilities. When vydelenii stationary tourism emphasizes that in this case, the journey is carried out for the sake of staying at some resort. For stationary species tourism and medical tourism are certain types of recreational and sports tourism.
Nomadic tourism involves constant movement, change of residence. Here, the stay is subordinate. With the growth of the technical capabilities of transport is a growing trend to nomadic tourism, tourist tendency to "consume space." The change in the mobility of outdoor activities is reflected in the geography of the material and technical base of tourism. The growth of mobility, especially the growth sleeper increases linearly nodal principle of territorial organization of tourism. Material and technical base of tourism is increasingly drawn to the roads. As a result of the growth of individual vehicles increases the residence time of tourists in several places by reducing the stay in one place. There is the development of the tourist economy along with simultaneous deepening of the territorial division of labor in the tourism industry.
The degree of mobility is reflected in the approach to the study of tourism, in particular to the evaluation of recreational resources. For example, the assessment of the diversity of the landscape along the highways will be different from the assessment landscape for walking and the more stationary tourism. It is clear that the frequency of changing landscapes for hiking needs to be greater than for trailering.
Trip tourism is often equated with tourism in general. It can be sporty (qualification) and can carry an amateur, that is, a wellness character. By the nature of the obstacle most often it is divided into plain and mountain. This type of recreation is based on the human desire to overcome the natural obstacles who fought with nature, close to her. Trip tourism is closely linked with cognitive sightseeing tourism, with a patriotic youth movement. By the nature of the methods used, it can be hiking, motorized, etc. The differences and the radius of its action: local (in the neighborhood), regional, obschegosudar-tively.
The big development was the recreational boating and sports. These species include the water-motor sports, water skiing, "canoeing, sailing, etc. Typically, these types of tourism combined with the bathing-beach tourism in the tourist complex, rapidly growing on the shores of the seas, lakes and rivers.
It is becoming increasingly popular underwater sports tourism for the purpose of wildlife photography and underwater hunting for marine animals. Underwater kinds of sports tourism, include not only the elements of the sport, but also the elements of cognitive interest. Cognitive aspect is, for example, an underwater archaeological tourism, developed in Mediterranean countries, where the tourists are attracted by the ruins of the ancient port city under water. Great prospects underwater tourism in tropical countries are on the coral reefs.
Famous popular fishing tourism. Its role can be seen, for example, the share of expenditures for the acquisition of the US population Fishing and hunting equipment in total expenditures on recreational goods - 26%.
Hunting tourism is related to travel and pursue as a major goal of recreation in nature, rather than material enrichment. Such kinds of tourism as photo and film shoot are cognitive forms of tourism. Hunting tourism, more regulated in connection with the problems of wildlife conservation. It is also one of the most expensive types of foreign tourism. Especially road safari in Africa. Wealthy foreigners are interesting hunting grounds in Africa and Asia. US, Canada, Europe and Australia. Most of the hunters-tourists in these countries comes from populous countries with impoverished hunting grounds: France, Italy. Belgium, Sweden, UK, USA. Hunting tourism, as a source of foreign currency, are actively developing in recent years, and some post-Soviet and post-socialist countries.
(Ski tourism in recent years has received rapid development. It creates specialized gornolyzhnye resorts with well-developed service system.
Taking into account the structure of the participants of tourist travel, the following division of tourism: over the age of participants in tourism divided pas - a) youth tourism, b) youth tourism and) tourism of the adult population, which, in turn, can be subdivided into tourism people middle-aged and elderly tourism; Social structure tourism traveling divided into - a) tourism urban, b) rural population and tourism in) family tourism.
By way of tourist accommodation in the bases overnight tourism can be divided into: a) tourism and hotel-type b) tourism negostinichnogo type.
Depending on the purpose of the tourism undertaken by puteshestviya tourism is subdivided into: a) the recreational tourism, b) and excursion tourism) specialized tourism. Recreational tourism includes travel for the purpose of treatment and rehabilitation, but rather, it is divided into - resort therapy, consisting of a climate treatment, balneotherapy and mud therapy, and recreational and sports, including the improvement of the houses and hostels, as well as in sports campaigns. Excursion tourism - a journey to other parts of the country and to get acquainted with their natural and socio-economic (human-made) sights. Specialized tourism - a journey committed under special programs and routes. He usually covers the people, united by a common purpose or professional interests.
Depending on the modes of transportation, and the use of vehicles are three groups of types of tourism: a) active (without vehicles), b) passive tourism (with the use of motor vehicles, part of which is called "traffic tourism") and c) tourism with non-motorized vehicles.
Naturally, the classification of such grounds - something conditional, for all forms and types of tourism are complex relationships and interpenetrate one other. It is important to detect the leading sign and consider it sochetanii with attendant.
By the nature of the transport services tourism is divided into road (individual), bus, aviation (shuttle or charter), rail, motor-ship (sea, river, lake).
The share of road transport accounts for 3/4 of the world's passenger traffic. In Western Europe, about 70% of tourists traveling on an individual vehicle and in the 50s, this figure is about 25%. In the US, this figure raven 90%. The tourism service for short distances takes main part bus transport, and very long and somewhat long distances - air transport. For example, the Atlantic lines Development of air transportation led to a catastrophic decline in passenger traffic morskih. Now they make up only about 10% of total transatlantic passenger traffic.
Widespread charter air transportation of tourists. Charter plane - a plane chartered for a single shipment, or several flights. With chartered aircraft organized the so-called inklyuzivtury, ie group tourist travel route in advance of conditionality with a pre-paid transport costs.
Tourist Railway transportation is less common, especially in the smaller of the country. Rail transport is trying to withstand the competition from other modes of transport by improving the comfort and speed of 200-250 kilometers per hour. Railways introduced inklyuzivtury. Widely developed a form of transportation and recreation organizations, as tourist train. Takzhe should be noted that an important role in the transport of tourists prodolzhayut play low fares rail.
The role of maritime transport in tourism grows only along the line of the ferry, particularly avtomobiley tourists. But in the last decade and it is rapidly growing cruise tourism. Cruise - a sea journey, usually in a closed circle - on the same ship on a certain route with stops at places of interest, or in places that are the starting point for excursions. Cruise voyage becomes the predominant form of exploitation of modern passenger fleet.
The main routes of cruises are directed to the warm seas. The most advanced cruise tour of the Mediterranean, especially high intensity of cruises in the waters of the archipelago Gre-cal. For the Mediterranean, the Caribbean should be an area where excel in the number of cruise tourists arriving Bahamas. In the span ports are allocated as the Scandinavian countries. Rapidly growing number of cruise flight in the Pacific.
By the number of departures of cruise ships first in the world it takes the port of New York. Among the leading countries of cruise tourism - England, Norway, Greece, Italy, France, the United States.
Initially, all tourist activities were purely commercial. Profit is one of the most important results of the tourist enterprise. In an effort to maximize their income tourist firms and agencies are looking for the optimum ratio between the amount of the costs and the price of the tourist product and, therefore, they offer products and services designed mainly to persons with high and average income are ready to pay the full costs of the tourist family budgets.
In contrast to commercial tourism gradually emerged the concept of social tourism. Its concept is based on the following fundamental principles: ensuring the rest of each and every member of society through greater involvement in tourism people with low incomes; Tourism subsidizing the poor and the active participation of government, municipal, public and commercial structures in its development. Thus, social tourism is the tourism of low-income segments of the population, are supported by the state and non-state actors.
A special role in the development of social tourism belongs subsidies from special funds pension funds, trade unions, the factory committees of local communities, as well as centralized sources.
The system of social tourism not only benefits potrebitelyu, and tourism enterprises. With the introduction of checks otpusknyh they expand their market and get additional guarantees payment of services provided. Concerning them carried out adequate financial, preferential tax and credit policy of the state.
This system covers many categories of people with low incomes. Initially it was created and has been focused on unskilled workers engaged in manual labor, so often identified with social tourism tourism workers. But gradually the social base expanded, and now its services are used by people belonging to different social strata and age groups.
The active participation of trade unions, various social organizations, state and municipal authorities in the rest of the population groups with low incomes will transform social tourism in a significant social phenomenon, comparable in scale to the commercial tourism.
For the current stage of development of world tourism is characterized by the concept of mass tourism, which reflects the process of democratization and expansion of tourist traffic. In industrialno developed Western countries, more than half of the population is consumers of the tourism product, ie tourist goods and services. This concept of mass tourism has been introduced and is used as an alternative to aristocratic tourism of the XIX century, separate expensive forms of tourism, focused on a narrow range of consumers, and tourism in developing countries, where access to tourism benefits the local population is limited due to the low standard of living.
In contrast to mass tourism there is also the concept of elite tourism, designed for wealthy clientele. For this category of consumer price level tristskom market does not really matter, but they are more demanding on the quality of products and services. The development of this species tourism plays a role for the entire tourism business in general. Elite tourism sets the pulse of the entire tourism industry, it promotes the adoption and diffusion of new higher standards of service and, ultimately, contributes to improving the quality of life of the population. Not so sluchayno upmarket tourism is often referred to as "the engine of tourism."
Ecological tourism. Ecotourism arose relatively recently in the wake of the "green" movement and is widely used in the West in connection with the concept of sustainable development. In the literature ecological tourism (ecotourism) is defined as traveling to areas with relatively well-preserved natural environment in order to get an idea of the natural, cultural and ethnographic peculiarities of the area, thus it does not violate the integrity of ecosystems and create such economic conditions in which nature conservation is becoming beneficial to the local community.
Ecotourism is often seen as an alternative to mass tourism, so unlike traditional tourism it is characterized by the following main features:
- The presence of unique natural attractions, acting as the main objects of ecotourism;
- Sustainable use of natural and cultural potential of the territory, based on the planned development of the tourism industry;
- A relatively low capital and energy-intensive materials;
- The organization of environmental education and the formation of ecological thinking, which is one of the major problems of ecotourism;
- Promote socio-economic recovery of individual regions and entire countries.
Of considerable size in the world today has reached and religious tourism, ie tourism with religious motivation poezdok. It includes the following types: a pilgrimage, traveling for the purpose of knowledge of the history of religion and the church culture, travel clerics to review the state of religion and religious affairs abroad. The greatest weight among them is, of course, the pilgrimage. This pilgrims visiting holy places of worship of religious relics, shrines, and of worship. Attractive destination for pilgrims of various concessions is Jerusalem - the Holy Land for the followers of the three great monotheistic religions. Jews, professing Judaism, seek here to visit the biblical shrine, the Western Wall, surrounding the Temple Mount. Christians associate it with the earthly sojourn of Jesus Christ and go to pray in the church of the Holy Sepulchre. Muslims come here to pray in the Mosque of Omar Al-Aqsa Mosque and others.
But the main Muslim holy city and the center of their "Hajj" (pilgrimage) is the city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad (Mohammed). Catholic pilgrims go to the Vatican, which remains the head of the Catholic Church - the Pope.
Each country has its own national centers of pilgrimage, defining religious tourism route. It is the location of the temples with the miracle-working icons, famous monasteries, mosques and religious centers. Pilgrimage movement in tension and the number of participants is directly proportional to religious holidays, major religious dates, and therefore is not uniform in nature.
Classification of tourism is of great scientific and practical significance, since it allows you to organize the knowledge and deeper understanding of the essence of the global tourist traffic. With additional requirements for the quality and volume of tourist services and the emergence of new types and forms of services, as well as new types of tourism it is constantly in the process of improvement and can not be considered final.
Control questions: 1. Tourist right - it's ...?
2. Tourism and nature protection.? 3. Study the potential of the tourist market of consumers
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2. Sevastyanov SA Regional planning development of tourism and hotel industry: educational posobie.- M: KNORUS, 2010.- 256c.