Topic 3. The resource potential of recreational activities. Natural recreational resources and their evaluation.
The purpose of the lectures: Oznokomit students with the functions of recreation in a person's life, on a theoretical and practical approach
Keywords: nature reserve, landscape,
Evaluation of the recreational resource potential in the region for the development of tourism.
Natural resource potential of the regions
Recreational resources. By definition, LA Crimson, NV Bagrov and VS Transfiguration, "the natural recreational resources" - is natural and natural - technical geosystems, bodies and phenomena of nature, which have features comfortable for outdoor activities and can be used for some time for recreation and recuperation certain contingent of people.
The complex of recreational resources occupy a special place socio - economic resources serving prerequisite for the development of cultural tourism. Socio - economic and recreational resources include the historical - cultural sites and events. These resources are divided into material and spiritual, on the one hand, and immovable and movable - on the other.
The material covers the totality of the means of production and other material values of society at every historical stage of its development, and spiritual - the totality of the achievements of society in education, science, art, literature, the organization of public and social life and work life. Realty Group resources constitute the historical monuments, urban planning and architecture, archeology and instant art and other facilities, including those works of art that are an integral part of architecture. The group of moveable resources include works of art, archaeological finds, mineralogical, botanical and zoological collections, documentary monuments and other things, objects and documents that can be easily moved. Consumption of recreational resources of this group is connected with visits to museums, libraries, archives, where they tend to concentrate.
Depending on the basic features of historical and cultural monuments are divided into five main types: the history, archeology, urban planning and architecture, art, documentary monuments. Socio - economic and recreational resources can be attributed to other objects related to the history, culture and contemporary human activity: the original enterprise of industry, agriculture, transport, research institutions, universities, theaters, sports facilities, botanical gardens, zoos, Oceanarium, ethnographic and folklore attractions, crafts and buried folk customs, rituals and holidays, etc.
But we must bear in mind that the area has favorable for tourism in natural and socio - economic conditions themselves are not yet tourist resources. They get them with the appropriate needs and opportunities of development of tourist facilities.
Going natural systems in a class of tourist - recreational resources takes place as follows: 1) natural complexes exist as a natural formation, due to the lack of tourism demand, they do not have the character of resources; 2) the emergence of tourism demand requires an examination and assessment of natural systems; 3) by virtue of the public investment needs and living labor and means of the most valuable natural ecosystems are converted into resources; 4) The increase in tourism demand leads to a transition and less favorable properties of natural complexes in the resource class after reclamation.
In recent years, in Kazakhstan the process of transformation of the economic reproduction system based on the principles of administrative and distribution in the market. Along with these changes in the economy Reformation continued regionalization of economic life, to intensify the process of decentralization of management, the transfer to the regions of ownership of industrial, infrastructure and the nature of economic activity and the responsibility for their use.
Strengthening and development in the designated context of stabilization trends emerging in a number of Russian regions in recent years, directly corresponds to a strategic approach to the management of meso-economic system that allows to realize the possibility of complex involving potential economic entities without exception spheres and sectors of the regional economy in the socio-economic development territories.
In the context of regionalization and market reform of the region's economy in various sectors and spheres of territorial economies are formed or that the priorities of transformational changes, determined by the specific industry, its place in the system of regional reproduction, as well as the peculiarities of the region, including its resource characteristics.
In the context of the above, the purpose of this section is to consider the main social and economic factors that shape the specifics of the economies of the subjects of the Central Asia and South Caucasus, as well as evaluation of resource potential of the development of the sphere of tourist services in the region.
In this regard, it should be noted that in the geo-economic, geopolitical and socio-cultural aspects. Among the internal problems, notably the ones whose solution may be a reserve for economic growth in the region: high employment with low per capita rates of monetary income and the share in the consolidated budgets of the leading regions, a large share of the latent form of remuneration in low and disproportionate demand of the population;
low employment rates in the lagging regions and stagnating at a high birth rate, the absence of sufficient growth of jobs, low wages and per security, livelihood insecurity minimum standards and effective demand; low level of labor productivity in the irrational structure of employment, disparities in the development of industries and sectors of the economy, production and non-production areas, declining and aging active population; distribution of short-term and ineffective employment of young people with a low level of labor intensive, disproportionate concentration of young cadres in the non-manufacturing sector of the real sector in the city, with respect to the village;
- unjustified expansion of direct costs due to unproductive cost, expense accounts, need to transfer these costs through net income;
The slow pace of integration and diversification, specialization and concentration, cooperation and combined industrial and agricultural production, low share of services in GRP in most regions of the South, high monopolization and immobilization of the channels of circulation of goods and money; inadequate replacement of administrative and policy measures economic methods and technologies of civil society in the management of the economy in all regions of the South; non-systemic use of sources of finance for growth, economic instruments, the fragmentation of the regional economic legislation.
The main directions of development of the macro-region, in our view, should be:
development of an active industrial policy aimed at improving and capitalization of existing and creation of new industries;
development of agriculture in the direction of intensification of production and increase its efficiency; forming an integral tourist and recreational complex, aimed at providing world-class tourist services;