You will hear a lecture on global warming. For questions 1- 15 fill in the missing information.
The director of NASA’s Institute for Space Studies James Hansen had a simple message about 1). … As evidence he presented not just the atmospheric models that for years have predicted climate change, but also 2). … that show a rise of 0.6 degrees Celsius. And the decade of the nineties, as Hansen pointed out, is by far 3). …The date was 4). …, and human-induced global warming had finally emerged as 5). … that policy-makers could no longer ignore. Although much of the key data had been developed and even published in preceding years, 6). …. A sober government scientist was publicly stating his conclusion that human-induced greenhouse warming is a reality with which 7). … .
Against the background of a persistent North American drought and unusually mild European weather, shock waves emanated quickly from Capitol Hill. Hundreds of reports soon followed in magazines and on television programs around the world. Opinion polls soon showed that climate change had become 8). … . Since Hansen’s testimony, debate has raged in the scientific community and popular press about some of the details of his conclusions. Hansen brought to public attention what is now a strong and largely undisputed consensus of atmospheric scientists: global temperatures are 9). …during the coming decades.
The Earth’s climate is a product of 10). … . On Venus, a human being’s blood would boil. On Mars, a person would 11). … . The difference in temperature is largely due to 12). … . All three receive huge quantities of solar energy, but the amount that is radiated back into space depends on 13). … . Some gases tend to absorb the heat in the same way that 14). …, allowing temperatures to build up. The scorching heat of Venus is a product of an atmosphere composed largely of carbon dioxide. Earth, on the other hand, has 15). …, only 0.03 percent of which is carbon dioxide. This share has varied only by 40 percent over the past several years, allowing a relatively stable climate conducive to life.
By Ch. Flavin, from World watch Paper
Tell about the greenhouse effect using this picture
14. 9 You will hear a man talking about a climatic phenomenon called El Niňo. For questions 10-14, choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best according to what you hear.
1. The phenomenon known as El Niňo.
A) is confined to the Pacific Ocean.
B) affects climate in many parts of the world.
C) resembles global warming.
D) caused the disappearance of the dinosaurs.
2. It was named after
A) Jesus Christ.
B) a fisherman’s son.
C) a warm current.
D) a time of year.
3. It is caused by
A) the wind changing direction.
B) the wind losing its force.
C) the water becoming cooler.
D) violent storms.
4. El Niňa is a phenomenon that
A) reserves the effect of El Niňo.
B) produces similar weather conditions.
C) forms part of the same pattern.
D) occurs every four or five years.
5. The effect of El Niňo
A) can be reliably forecast.
B) are sometimes beneficial.
C) are never accurately reported.
D) do not reach the northern hemisphere.
Fowler W.S. New Fowler proficiency. Listening and speaking, 2003.