2. treaty (contract)n(written agreement) a contract of employment
3. jury n (a group of usually 12 people chosen to decide innocence or guilt of an accused person on trial)
4. a majorityn (more than half) a simple majority
5. decision n (judgment; ruling; verdict)
court decisions– (interpretations of what is or is not constitutional)
6. crime (offence) n
commit a crime (an offence) (do sth that is a crime)
7. the prosecution n (the lawyers in a court who try to prove that someone is guilty of a crime)
prosecute v (to bring a criminal charge against someone in a court of law)
8. defendant n (the person in a court who has been charged with a crime and is trying to prove that he or she did not do it.)
10. take over v (gain control)
11. find sb guilty/not guilty v (when a court officially decides that someone has or has not committed a crime)
12. judicial review (a court’s power to invalidate legislative and executive actions as being unconstitutional)
13. tort n (a civil wrong for which a remedy may be obtained, usually in the form of damages; a breach of a duty that the law imposes on everyone in the same relation to another as those involved in a given transaction)
the tort of negligence ['neglɪʤən(t)s] (a tort committed by failure to observe the standard of care required by law under the circumstances) - ïðàâîíàðóøåíèå èç-çà íåáðåæíîñòè, ïðàâîíàðóøåíèå èç-çà õàëàòíîñòè
the tort of nuisance['njuːs(ə)n(t)s] (a tort thatallows a claim to be made if one’s enjoyment of land is affected by too much noise, smoke, smells or other nuisances coming from another person’s land.)
the tort of defamation(a tort committed by failure to observe the standard of oral and written statements)
14. succession n (refers to the process by which the property of a decedent is inherited through descent or by will) )
15. health and safety regulations
16. liability n(responsibility)
17. breach n (of) (the violation of a legal or moral obligation) - íàðóøåíèå
breach of contract (responsibility) –íàðóøåíèå äîãîâîðà (îáÿçàòåëüñòâ)
18. duty of care (a legal relationship arising from a standard of care, the violation of which subjects the actor to liability)
19. validadj (legally sufficient; binding) a valid marriage a valid will
Minister of Staten a person whose job is to help the minister who is the head of a government department
A Member of Parliament (MP) n someone who has been elected to represent people in a parliament
Exercise 1. Read the following sentences, notice carefully the active words in bold, and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The judicial power of the federal courts of the United States concerns disputes (controversies) in which the United States is involved.
2. International law is concerned with disputes between nations.
3. Private law is concerned with disputes between private individuals or businesses.
1. In the law of contract, where one person buys a digital television from a shop each party will have rights and duties under this contract.
2. Even where there is no contract or agreement between the parties, the law can impose rights and duties on people.
3. Employment law covers all aspects of employment, from the original formation of a contract of employment to situation of redundancy or unfair dismissal.
1. Congress decides how treason is punished.
2. Ruling is an official decision made by a court.
3. The Scottish jury has 15 members and the decision can be made by a simple majority of eight to seven.
1. The number of crimes reported to the police has increased.
2. Adultery is not considered a crime in Christian countries.
3. A person who commits a crime is said to have offended against the State.
1. The prosecution tries to prove that the defendant is guilty. They call witnesses who give evidence against him.
2. If a defendant commits the crime of burglary by breaking into a house and stealing, the State prosecutes the defendant for that burglary, although it is also possible for the victim to bring a private prosecution if the State does not take proceedings.
3. Both the prosecutionand the defence have the right to appeal from the Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) to the House of Lords.
1. The defendant pleaded not guilty.
2. The defendant is represented by lawyers who try to prove that he or she is innocent. These lawyers are known as the defence.
3. ‘How does the defendant plead?’ ‘Not guilty, your honor’.
1. He took over a business.
2. Ferdinand Marcos provides a typical case of over centralized power: he came to power with wide popular support and many reforming ideas but steadily reduced the rights of Filipino citizens and family took over most of the executive, legislative and judicial functions of the state.
3. If there is a private prosecution, the State still has the right to intervene and take over the matter.
Find sb guilty
1. She was found guilty of attempted murder.
2. Mr. Newbery was found not guilty of a criminal charge of wounding Mr. Smith.
3. At the end of the case, if the defendant is found guilty, the court will punish the defendant for the offence, because he or she has broken the criminal law set down by the State.
A majority vote
1. If there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice-President, the President nominates a Vice-President who takes office after both houses of Congress have confirmed him by a majority vote.
2. If a vice-presidential candidate does notget a majority of the electoral votes, the Senate elects the Vice-President from the two vice-presidential candidates with the highest number of electoral votes.
3. The Scottish jury makes the decision bya simple majority of eight to seven.
1. All debts made by the Unites States under the Articles of Confederation were made valid (still in effect) against the United States under the Constitution.
2. It is very unusual for a new custom to be considered by the courts today and even rarer for the courts to decide that it will be recognized as a valid custom, but there have been some such cases.
3. Family law covers such matters as whether a marriage is valid.
1. The House of Lords ruled that their behaviour was a breach of the criminal law of assault and they could not claim the defence of consent to excuse their acts.
2. Major breaches of a moral code (such as murder and robbery) are against the law.
3. A tort occurs where the civil law holds that, even though there is no contract between them, one person owes a legal responsibility of some kind to another person, and there has been a breach of that responsibility.
Duty of care
1. In tort law, duty is a legally sanctioned obligation the breach of which results in the liability of the actor. Thus, an individual owes a duty of care to conduct himself to avoid negligent injury to others.
2.Many cases arise from road traffic crashes, since drivers owe a duty of care to anyone who might be injured by their negligent driving.
1. The defendant is given three months to investigate the claim and must then reply, setting out if liability is admitted or if it is denied, with the reason for the denial.
2. He denies any liability for the cost of the court case.
3. A woman is injured by faulty machinery at work (the tort of negligence, but may also involve occupiers’ liability and/or employer’s duty under health and safety regulations).