All attackers share certain characteristics. They don't want to be caught, so they try to conceal themselves, their identity and real geographic location. If they gain access to your system, they will certainly attempt to preserve that access, if possible, by building in extra ways to get access. Most of them have some contact with other people who have the same kinds of interests, and most will share the information they get from attacking your system.
Joyriders are bored people looking for amusement. They break in because they think you might have interesting data, or because it would be amusing to use your computers, or because they have nothing better to do. They're curious but not actively malicious; however, they often damage the system through ignorance or in trying to cover their tracks. Joyriders are particularly attracted to well-known sites and uncommon computers.
Vandals are out to do damage, either because they get their pleasure from destroying things, or because they don't like you. Vandals are a big problem if you're somebody that the Internet underground might think of as The Enemy (for example, the phone company or the government) or if you tend to annoy people who have computers and time (for example, you're a computer company with annoyed customers).
Fortunately, vandals are fairly rare. People don't like them, even people in the underground who have nothing against breaking into computers in general. Unlike other intruders, vandals have short but splashy careers. In most circumstances, deleting your data, or even ruining your computer equipment, is not the worst thing somebody could do to you, but it is what vandals do. Unfortunately, it's close to impossible to stop a determined vandal; somebody with a true vendetta against your site is going to get you, sooner or later.
Certain attacks are attractive to vandals but not to other types of attackers. For example, denial of service attacks are not attractive to joyriders; while joyriders are around in your system, they are just as interested as you are in having your computers up, running, and available to the Internet.
Task 11. Match the extracts with the types of documents.
A) Letter of Offer
D) Application Letter
1) We are pleased to learn that you have moved into the area served by our bank. We cordially invite you to do your banking business here. Checking and saving accounts, loans for all purposes, and complete banking services are available to you at our convenient location.
Operating Systems Design Object-Oriented Development
Java Development Relational Database Theory
C/C++ Programming Network Programming
3) I am currently a Systems Programmer at GCG Merchant Bank where I have two years' experience of specialized programming for the financial sector. I am familiar with C/UNIX, LAN/WAN technology, and relational databases.
4) Any business communication between the Parties is considered confidential or a business secret
Task 12. Comment on the behaviour of Simon Greens, a computer user. What can you recommend him to improve his home computer security?
1. Simon uses antivirus software and updates it every year.
2. When he is sent a file attachment or program he doesn't expect or want, he usually opens it and sees what it is.
3. He doesnít know what a firewall means.
4. Simon thinks he has no secret data in his home computer, thatís why he shouldnít care about computer security.
5. When Simon is not using his computer, he always disconnects from the Internet.
6. His password for E-mail is his girl friendís name.
7. Simon copies important files from his hard disk only in case he needs to transfer them to his office computer.
8. When something strange starts to happen on his computer, Simon immediately reboots it.
9. The security setting on Simonís Internet browser software was set to High, but he reset it to Medium.
Task 13. Read the ideas of Hackerís Ethics from Hackers by Steven Levi. Do you think the word hacker is used it its negative or positive meaning? Agree or disagree with the rules.
∑ Access to computers and anything which might teach you something about the way the world works should be unlimited and total.
∑ All information should be free.
∑ Mistrust authority Ė promote decentralization.
∑ Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria such as degrees, age, race, or position.
∑ You can create art and beauty on a computer.
∑ Computers can change your life for the better.
∑ Like Aladdin's lamp, you could get it to do your bidding.
Task 14. Enjoy the joke.
There is a virus being passed around electronically, orally, and by hand. This virus is called Worm-Overload-Recreational-Killer (W.O.R.K.).
If you receive W.O.R.K. from your colleagues, your boss, or any one else, do not touch W.O.R.K. under any circumstances. This virus will wipe out your private life completely.
Work has been circulating around our building for months and those who have been tempted to open W.O.R.K. or even look at W.O.R.K. have found that their social life is deleted and their brain ceases to function properly.
If you do encounter W.O.R.K., to purge the virus, you must immediately go to the nearest bar. Purchase the antidote known as Work-Isolating-Neutralizer-Extract (W.I.N.E.) or Bothersome-Employer-Elimination-Rebooter (B.E.E.R.). Take the antidote repeatedly until W.O.R.K. has been completely eliminated from your system.
Forward this virus warning immediately to at least 5 friends. Should you realize that you do not have 5 friends, this means that you are already infected by this virus and W.O.R.K. already controls your whole life.