1. When I had asked him what first gave him the idea of being a painter, he was unable or unwilling to tell me. (S. M.) 2. We happened then to cross the street and the traffic prevented us from speaking. (S. M.) 3. I know you dislike being aroused early, but it is nine o'clock. Pagget insists on regarding 9 a. m. as practically the middle of the day. (A. Chr.) 4. The world is a fine place and worth fighting for. (E. H.) 5. He was accustomed to having all his thoughts sifted through his mother's mind. (St. L.) 6. I see, Mr. Clarke, that you are if I may say so without being offensive — still a boy at heart. (A. Chr.) 7. I can't explain, but having done it just once is enough. (A. H.) 8. After fifteen minutes she located a physician who sounded angry and sulky at being called out of bed. (F. F.) 9. Mrs. Harter couldn't help smiling at him. (A. Chr.) 10. The cook left, having heard that she could earn three times her present wages in London, without being obliged to prepare more than two dinners in the week... (P. W.) 11. He had never committed the imprudence of marrying, or encumbering himself in any way with children. (Galsw.) 12. And as though in the habit of taking each other home every night they went out. (Galsw.) 13. He reproached me for not being foresighted enough to bring a picnic lunch. (Am. St.) 14. I didn't at all like the prospect of having to break the bad news to him. (P. W.) 15. It was not until the crowd had cleared away a bit that we got a chance of having a word together. (P. W.) 16. ...when she took a thing into her head there was no stopping her. (Galsw.) 17. "I don't see anything funny about a child being hurt!" She said in a trembling voice. (F. F.) 18. There was something in his personality which prevented him from being dull. (S. M.) 19. Almost without meaning to she put one of her own hands into his hand. (S. M.)
Ex. 2. Use the. gerund in the active or passive voice (non-perfect form) instead of the infinitive in brackets.
1. Mr. Davidson has a wonderful heart and no one who is in trouble has ever gone to him without (to comfort). (S. M.) 2. I eat very little myself, but I make a point of (to have) a proper dinner served to me every night. (S. M.) 3. "I wanted to see you," I said and now I was anxious just to avoid (to look) at her and to collect my wits. (S. M.) 4. 1 think he was a little ashamed of (to be) so successful. (S. M.) 5. This was an appeal to which Eleonor was incapable of (to turn) a deaf ear. (S. M.) 6. We were in the habit of (to bathe) at a beach called the Baths of Liberius. (S. M.) 7. Worst of all, he had no hope of (to shake) her resolution. (Galsw.) 8. ...I hated thus (to deprive) oi the sweetness of youth. (O'Hara) 9. Never had he felt George's presence without the sense of being laughed at. (Galsw.)
Ex. 3. Use the gerund in the perfect or non-perfect form instead of the infinitive in brackets.
1. Without (to ask) his advice I have taken an important step. 2. My sister usually stopped (to read) when there was something terrible in the story. 3. He disliked (to run) the whole department. 4. He spoke with an air of (to work) this out accurately. (White) 5. On behalf of my wife and myself we thank you for (to be) with us on this joyous occasion. (H. R.) 6. Miss Marple had been shown every antique piece of furniture that contained or could be suspected of (to contain) a secret drawer. (A. Chr.) 7. (to hear) them talk about bathing made me want to bathe too. (A. Chr.) 8. That charming lady is capable of (to tell) any lie to her advantage, with the most childlike candor. (A. Chr.) 9. People had grown tired of (to say) that the "Disunion" was on its last legs. (Galsw.) 10. I think I am correct in (to say) that they have remained in the safe. (A. Chr.) 11. He remembered (to meet) her in the park. (Kipling) 12. Mr. Kosak is tired of (to give) us credit. (W. S.) 13, I remember (to read) about it in one of the historical novels ... (P. W.) 14. (to picnic) with Jan was better than a feast with anyone else. (Cus.) 15. He knew, but he had no intention of (to reveal) the fact. (A. Chr.) 16. He never spoke of (to have) any relations. (A. Chr.) 17. He gave no sign of (to hear) them. (S. M.) 18. They hate her for (to get away) with it. (Am. St.)
Ex. 4.Use the gerund in the required form instead of the infinitive in brackets.
1. Gil Tullock was never tired of (to look) at his wife. (White) 2. I wasn't keen on (to wash) this kind of dirty linen in public. (J. Sh.) 3. He'll be afraid of (to think) ungrateful. (Galsw.) 4. ...he came back to town in a poor way, and went about with pathetic attempts at.(to make) 'the best of a bad job. (Galsw.) 5. The clothes were washed elsewhere: in here they were but aired before (to put on). (Galsw.) 6. Warren wants me to go home and give up the idea of (to go) on the stage. (I. M.) 7. They would send out for coffee and sandwiches, and after they had finished (to eat), it would be around seven o'clock. (I. M.) 8. Here, they felt, was someone worth (to take) a little trouble over. (S. M.) 9. He was so young, so gay, he laughed so merrily at other people's jokes that no one could help (to like) him. (S. M.) 10. I beg the House's pardon for (to be) so long in (to fulfil) my task. (Galsw.) 11. I seem honoured in (to permit) to draw the attention of all the parties to this. (Galsw.) 12. "I, Mrs. Michael Mont, withdraw" the words concerning Miss Marjorie Ferrar contained in my letters... and hereby tender a full and free apology for (to write) them." (Galsw.) 13. After (to mourn) for her so many years it is time that you once more enjoyed life. (A. Chr.) 14. ...Mrs. Soudamore… hesitated before (to kiss) her daughter good-bye. (P. W.) 15. Martin Eden never looked at him without (to experience) a sense of repulsion. (J. L.) 16. And ever since she's been haunted by what she did. I can't help (to feel) sorry for her. (A. Chr.) 17. Thank you for (to look) in on me. (H. R.) 18. I remember (to go) to the British Museum one day to read up the treatment for some slight ailment. (J. K. J.) 19. Soames had the peculiar feeling of (to overdo) his own honesty. (Galsw.)
Ex. 5.Translate into Russian paying attention to the form of the gerund.
1. ...he spoke of being back by morning. (A. Chr.) 2. One minute he had the sense of being a trespasser. (F. F.) 3. He had practically given up sleeping, save on short vacations deliberately concentrated to simple pleasures. (F. F.) 4. Peter Himmel, escort to the lovely Edith, was unaccustomed to being snubbed, having been snubbed, he was hurt and embarrassed, and ashamed of himself. (F. F.) 5. I insisted on all relations with the Klausners being broken off... (Am. St.) 6. ...the only thing that kept me from being really frightened was the conviction that Hugh would not become violent... (Am. St.) 7. The whole time I was conscious of being surrounded by a network of intrigue... (A. Chr.) 8. He had no intention of taking George any further into his confidence. (A. Chr.) 9. Hayson was by way of being interested in antiquarian matters and he talked to us with a great deal of energy and enthusiasm. (A. Chr.) 10. I ...present my apologies for leaving so soon. (H. R.) 11. He had keen blue eyes and a natural gift of pleasing people... (F. F.) 12. She had a happy kna,ck of looking very busy about doing nothing. (M. D.) 13. It involved supervising" all incoming flights in the west quadrant. (A. H.) 14. I remember riding on top of a taxicab along deserted Fifth Avenue... (F. F.)
Ex. 6.Define the function of the gerund.
1. Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. (Proverb) 2. In spite of myself I could not help smiling-(A. Chr.) 3. In the silence he began humming once again. (A. H.) 4. I always enjoy exercising my ingenuity. (A. Chr.) 5. Old Jolyon came out of Lord's cricket ground that same afternoon with the intention of going home. (Galsw.) 6. On hearing the tragic news, she fell at once into an alarming state of agitation. (A. Chr.) 7. You do not know how I suffer; all last night I could not sleep for thinking of your peril. (Steve.) 8. I'm thinking of travelling there by train in future. (A. H.) 9. He spared no pains in trying to see all and sundry who might be of use to him. (Dr.) 10. "William," Elizabeth said, "would you mind telling my brother w4iat instructions Mr. Lozier gave you?" (Am. St.) 11. Another election! Could he stand a second time without showing his true colours? (Galsw.) 12. It's no use crying over spilt milk. (Proverb) 13. Billy O'Brien... started writing dramatic criticism for little reviews. (Ë1. S.) 14. I just don't like getting mixed up in this thing. (Am. St.) 15. There was a reason for not doing so; a secret he had shared with no one, not even Natalie, his wife. (A. H.) 16. It was, she supposed, Henet's way of amusing herself. (A. Chr.) 17. Why have you come to me before going to her? (A. Chr.) 18. What d'you mean by saying that you're my nephew? (A. Chr.) 19. The children woke soon and began chattering and playing in the bed. (M. S.)
Ex. 7.Define the type of the adverbial modifier expressed by the gerund.
1. It did not look as if it would be cleared until the next mealtime and perhaps not even then; if room could be made by pushing the dirty plates aside. (M. D.) 2. Baydz and his father entered the room. They looked at each other without speaking. (H. R.) 3. He was overwhelmingly generous, and his generosity was of that rare and excellent kind which makes you feel as if you are doing... a favour by accepting it. (Am. St.) 4. Without giving myself time to reflect, I walked straight to the house... (A. Chr.) 5. Instead of worrying he took a deep breath of the crisp air ... (F. F.) 6. When a little while ago, my publisher expressed a wish to reissue it (a novel), I felt that, before consenting to this, I really should read it again. (S. M.) 7. The rain poured down without ceasing. (S. M.) 8. Ede had obtained Billy's teddy-bear by pulling it forcibly from his arms... (F. F.) 9. This morning, the old servant Francoise, on descending to start her work, found the front door ajar. (A. Chr.) 10. You never realize that by lying back in an armchair, with the eyes closed, one can come nearer to the solution of any problem. (A. Chr.) 11. Without much searching, I found an apartment on the fifth floor. (S. M.) 12. Well, doubtless we'll come across that in looking through Captain Trevelyan's papers. (A. Chr.) 13. That was soon established, by comparing it with the memorandum from the desk. (A. Chr.) 14. Sometimes Liza fell into light doze and Jim would keep very still for fear of waking her. (S. M.)
Ex. 8. Translate into Russian paying attention to the function of the gerund.
1. George, on hearing the story, grinned. (Galsw.) 2. From all I can learn, he's got no business, no income, and no connection worth speaking. (Galsw.) 3. But afraid of losing the expansion of his chest, he leaned back again into a state of immobility. (Galsw.) 4. "My wife, Doctor," Ben Ezra's voice was frightened. "She stopped breathing." (H. R.) 5. Without blotting the letter, he re-read it carefully. (A. Chr.) 6. Glancing back over his shoulder he saw the girl had calmly resumed her weeding. (A. Chr.) 7. Serves him right for sticking at the price. (Proverb) 8. We worked without ceasing, day and night and we seemed to make no progress. (S. M.) 9.. Gossip spread fast enough without helping it actively. (A. H.) 10. Do I not tell them so without ceasing? (A. Chr.) 11. I do so love doing things on the spur of the moment, don't you? (A. Chr.) 12. The children began running up and down the platform, playing games of their own making. (Shute) 13. That was when they started seeing each other. (A. H.) 14. But you see I do so hate being unhappy. (A. Chr.)
Ex. 9. Point out verbal, noun and adverbial characteristics of the gerund in the following sentences.
1. He lifted his head, but still without looking at me, his huge hands were clenched into fists. (Banks) 2. I wonder at Jolyon's allowing the engagement. (Galsw.) 3. It was ridiculous to think of going back there. (Banks) 4. But to my intense surprise, on getting down early the next morning, and eagerly opening the newspapers, there was not a word about the arrest! (A. Chr.) 5. I felt quite calm again, as divorced from my own immediate problems as if I were coming out after seeing a particularly absorbing film. (Banks) 6. I bent again to smell the bushy spikes, but Father stopped me by stooping quickly and snapping one off to give me. (Banks) 7. I wondered if I should apologise for never having called her back. (St. L.) 8. She never tired of praising his beauty. (S. M.) 9. I don't remember leaving the club, but I remember being in a taxi and saying: "Toby, I'll pay for this," and him saying: "This is my party..." (Banks) 10. The effort of getting up the third and fourth flights, which I tried to manage in one go, muddled me somehow. (Banks) 11... .she was not used to being kept waiting... (S. M.) 12. Nobody ever thought of making them at home. (K. Man.) 13. She began looking, rather hopelessly, at the names wandering whether one of them would recall something... . (S. M.) 14. He insisted on coming downstairs with her and putting her into a cab. (S. M.) 15. He was tempted by the idea of having a flat of his own, but it was out of the question... . (S. M.)
Ex. 10.Insert prepositions where necessary.
1. What was the use ... keeping half a dozen servants eating their heads off. (Galsw.) 2. That would have been much the easiest way ... doing it, he agreed. (A. Chr.) 3. He was a little hesitant about his reason ... -wanting to get away so badly. (Shute) 4. Yet, ironically, there was seldom any difficulty ... getting money for non-operational improvements. (A. H.) 5. You see a definite reason ... going down to Hand-borough? (A. Chr.) 6. Either complete frankness, or complete ignoring—and that meant ... living with the sword of Damocles above his head. (Galsw.) 7. I am not in the habit ... letting my judgement be influenced, as you call it, Hastings. (A. Chr.) 8. Her voice had become thrill; Ralph spoke in the hope ... restraining it. (Am. St.) 9. You can't tell how a man's feeling just ... looking at him. (P. W.) 10. He was possessed with a wild notion ... rushing out into the streets and taking a train to Detroit. (F. F.) 11. Certain people, you see, have a gift ... seeing things in a crystal. (A. Chr.) 12. She gave the impression ... being frail, innocent and very young. (I. Sh.) 13. "You haven't thanked me yet ... saving your life," I said with false sweetness. (A. Chr.) 14. "Roger!" cried Gretchen. "What d'you mean ... talking like that?" (F. F.) 15. Naturally he wears glasses to conceal his eyes, and is an invalid since he does not want to run the risk ... meeting Ridgeway. (A. Chr.) 16. She did not make a mistake ... fixing the night of Madame Daubrenil's visit. (A. Chr.) 17. In the afternoon she was overtaken by a desperate fit ... sobbing. (Galsw.) 18. I never did succeed ... teaching her to drive. (St. L.) 19. The man insisted ... shaking hands enthusiastically. (F. F.) 20. We shoveled out at the risk ... getting frostbite and sore muscles. (Am. St.)
Ex. 11.Complete the following using the gerund
a) as subject or predicative:
1. There's no use... . 2. It was useless... . 3. It would be no good... . 4. Is it worth while... ? 5. ... is more difficult than swimming. 6. His ambition was... . 7. He had an exaggerated opinion of his capabilities. There was... it. 8. Her aim is... .
b) as a part of a compound verbal predicate:
1. His temper kept... . 2. Doctor Flegg began... . 3. He kept... . 4. Now I will go on... . 5. Author started... . 6. All the time he was talking to me I went on... . 7. The officer finished... . 8. Suddenly he darted and began ... . 9. In the silence he started... . 10. He immediately stopped... . 11. When a ship goes down off their coast they cannot help... . 12. Her laughter was so infectious that I could not help... . 13. In spite of myself I could not help... . 14. She just continued... .
c) as a non-prepositional object:
1. Mel was aware that he disliked... . 2. He had practically given up... . 3. Her mother mentioned... . 4. I hate... . 5. I distinctly remember... . 6. It involved... . 7. She would have enjoyed... . 8. Would you mind.... 9. He lost his mother at a young age and he badly needs... . 10. I don't mind... . 11. Presently he suggested... .
d) as a prepositional object:
1. George wrote that he could not think of... . 2. Presently we were talking about... . 3. But that won't prevent you from ... . 4. You would tell me anything to keep me from... . 5. Thank you for... . 6. They persisted on... . 7. You haven't thanked me yet for... . 8. He knew how to flatter her father into... . 9. He has not succeeded in... . 10. She was counting on... . 11. I could barely restrain myself from... .12. Again they looked at each other sulkily this time, as if each suspected the other of... . 13. He insists on... . 14. My sister was never tired of... . 15. I was looking forward to... . 16. You are quite sure about... . 17. You are fond of... . 18. I'm good at... . 19. Ann was aware of... .
e) as an attribute:
1. I have really had no intention of... . 2. She has planned a way of... . 3. He had some vague scheme of... . 4. It was clear the dog had no intention of... . 5. She gave the impression of... . 6. Not much in the habit of... . 7. The Captain had the reputation of.'.. . 8. He had an opportunity of... . 9. I found the cause of... . 10. It occurred to me that there was an easy way of... . 11. He was possessed with a wild notion of... . 12. There was a reason for not... . 13. Ralph spoke in the hope of... . 14. I had, of course, no means of... . 15. With him there, she stood a better chance of... . 16. He described the methods of... . 17. I have the idea of... . 18. I got the knack of... . 19. This gave him a sense of... .
f) as an adverbial modifier:
1. We worked without... . 2. You're trying to fight me inspite of... . 3. It would have been impossible to reach it without... . 4. He had to go there himself inspite of ... . 5. He jumped to his feet and muttered an apology without... . 6. The pupil answered without... . 7. Yesterday he had closed out the greatest problem of his life by... . 8. It could be made by... . 9. They looked at each other without... . 10. We are in dreadful danger and you share it by... .11. She did not make a mistake because of... . 12. I shocked them by... . 13. She finished up by... . 14. He proved it by... . 15. He lit a cigarette before... . 16. She went there immediately on....
Ex. 12.State whether the -ing-form is the gerund or the verbal noun. Give your reasons.
1. Liza was able to make her own living by working at a factory. (S. M.) 2. When I imagined that on seeing his pictures I should get a clue to the understanding of his strange character I was mistaken. (S. M.) 3. He could feel that he •was very close to a beginning of some sort, but he couldn't tell what sort it would be. (W. S.) 4. Helen doesn't jib at the washing-up and Dong is so handy on the boat. (P. W.) 5. He translated quite mechanically, without paying attention to the words as he wrote them one after the other. (S. M.) 6. It was everywhere perfectly still, save for the rustling of leaves and birds. (J. L.) 7. But the most striking thing about him was the feeling he gave you of suppressed fire. (S. M.) 8. You stay here, my man. No slipping off to warn your master. (A. Chr.) 9. ...he hadn't time for worrying about the weather. (F. F.) 10. The diary is useful for recording the idiosyncrasies of other people — but not one's own. (A. Chr.) 11.1 didn't at all like the prospect of having to break the bad news to him. (P. W.)
Ex. 13.Recast the following sentences with the gerund so as to use complex sentences.
1. In giving his friend a wrong address I knew he was perhaps playing a trick on him. 2. She looked through the photographs again before putting them back. 3. But by now, after having passed through the ordeal so many times, she had acquired a certain nonchalance. 4. On hearing the tragic news, she fell at once into an alarming state of agitation. 5. On receiving her letter, I changed my mind. 6. He lit a cigarette for himself before answering. 7. After telling her, Mrs. Benson had spoken of the house in the strictest confidence to Mrs. Green. 8. Why have you come to me before going to her? 9. Why do you insist on going to the cinema? 10. Before starting we had sent a telegram to our friends giving them the time of our arrival in Leningrad. 11. After calling to enquire after the girl he returned home with a feeling of having been betrayed.
Ex. 14.Recast the following sentences so as to use constructions with the gerund instead of subordinate clauses. Insert prepositions wherever necessary.
1. I reflected that I had seen him only once. 2. When I reached Leningrad I found waiting for me an urgent request that I should go to my mother's place. 3. I called on my friends before I left. 4. When I left Moscow I corresponded with him. 5. And when you start a thing like that you don't know7 what you're letting yourself in for. 6. When she had turned the last page she decided that she would read the book again. 7. She was a trifle out of breath when she came to the third landing. 8. When Eva reached the restaurant she found that she \vas the last to arrive. 9. When Clare had had a cup of coffee and her bath... she began to feel much more herself. 10. When she had taken off her theatrical make-up she looked old and tired. 11. I suddenly remembered that I had seen that film.
Ex. 15. Make up sentences using the following constructions with the gerund.
1. could not help smiling; 2. on hearing the news; 3. the habit of reading in bed; 4. a chance of speaking to her; 5. avoided looking at her; 6. without saying good-bye; 7. grew "tired of repeating; 8. remembered reading; 9. had no intention of going; 10. gave up the idea of going; 11. worth taking a little trouble over; 12. instead of reading; 13. on the point of bursting into tears; 14. give up smoking; 15. after telling her (him); 16. would you mind my showing; 17. what do you mean by saying; 18. before answering; 19. serves him right for being; 20. forgive me for being
Ex. 16.Make up questions using the gerund after the following words or word combinations. Let your fellow students answer them.
1. to be worth; 2. to mind; 3. to insist on; 4. to prevent from; 5. the idea of; 6. instead of; 7. can't help; 8. to be tired of; 9. to give up; 10. to suggest; 11. to get used to; 12. to take advantage of; 13. the chance of; 14. to object to; 15. to be aware of; 16. to be fond of; 17. to be surprised at; 18. to feel like; 19. to think of; 20. to thank for