I / you / we / theyhave / haven't fed pets. He / she / ithas / hasn't drunk all the water. Has he / she / it escaped? Have I / you / we / they eaten lunch?
14.1. Put the verbs into correct form:
- I___ my passport. (to lose)
-“Where is Linda?” “She ___ to bed” (to go)
- We ___ a new car. (to buy)
- I know that woman but I ___ her name. (to forget)
- He ___ already ___ a letter. (to write)
14.2. Make up negative sentences:
-Peter has brought a cat to the classroom.
- The team has already played the game.
- We have just eaten our breakfast.
- I have cleaned the room today.
- They have met their friends.
14.3. Complete these questions:
- “___ you ___ this film?” “Not yet”. (to see)
-___ Ann ever ___ to Russia? (to be)
- Where ___ you ___ ? (to go)
-How ___ she ___ this dish? It’s delicious!(to cook)
-___ they ___ in time? (to come)
Unit 12. Customs Reforms is Urgent in Russia
6.2. Read the following analytical article taken from "Transition" bullet in written by Peter Davis, translate it using the dictionary and answer the questions below.
Customs Reforms is Urgent in Russia
With the recent changes in Central and Eastern Europe one can't but agree that there is a special need in a reform of customs laws across those countries to make it easier for major investors to trade effectively with (and invest in) the region. Without a doubt, one country where reform is most urgently needed is Russia.
When we asked major multinationals which countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS the most straightforward customs procedures, Russia didn't even register. In fact, Russian import procedures were given bottom marks, when it came to the volume of paper work needed, the speed of processing, and the prevalence of corruption, although competency of Russian officials was rated relatively high.
What are the roots of the customs problem in Russia? It cannot be easy for the State Customs Service to use customs to facilitate trade and foreign investment, while it is also under pressure from the federal government to increase annual customs receipts of more than $10 billion. Lowering import tariffs would raise customs revenue (by increasing imports) and reduce corruption. But in the current economic climate Western investors have been confronted with an extra 3% emergency import duty.
There is a real lack of understanding about business needs, and a reluctance to meet major foreign investors halfway when it comes to import rules and regulations. Once declarations are submitted, customs officers often reject them in order to dictate a different tariff that allows them to maximize revenue. Every declaration must be processed through a lengthy procedure of checks and physical inspections. The way rules are interpreted can vary between different border posts, and even between different customs inspectors.
What is the solution? The situation cannot be changed overnight. The Russian authorities have appeared willing to review the customs code. First of all, the should be officially recognized the concept of "air express": by their very nature, express shipments of such items as bank documents, computer disks with information, medical samples, or spare parts required for the urgent repair of machinery should be treated differently from, say, a freight shipment of several hundred cars. Consequently, four simplified customs categories should be introduced for express shipments: documents, low-value non-dutiable consignments, low-value dutiable consignments, high-value consignments. The first three categories should be given "fast track" clearance on the day of arrival. The high-value category would obviously need extra documentation, but also could be cleared quickly if all VAT and customs duties have been guaranteed.
There is a need to upgrade the resources available to the customs authorities, to extend the use of electronic clearance systems and exchange of information. A liberalization of the customs regime will be an important step in the right direction.
6.2.1. Answer the following questions:
1) Why were Russian import procedures given bottom marks by western financial analysts?
2) What are the roots of the customs problem in Russia?
3) What is "air express"? Has Russian Customs Service officially recognized this concept yet?
4) How are rules and procedures interpreted among different customs officials in Russia?
5) What do we understand under "fast track" clearance?
6) Please list all the recommendations made by western analysts for the Russian Customs code review.
7) What four simplified customs categories should be introduced for express shipments?