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True/False Questions

 

1. A structured questionnaire is given to a sample of a population and is designed to elicit specific information from respondents when using the survey method.

True (moderate, page 181)

 

2. Use of a formal questionnaire that presents questions in a prearranged order is called structured data collection.

True (easy, page 182)

 

3. Observational interviews are recognized as a classification for the various methods of collecting survey data.

False (moderate, page 183)

 

4. The method of interview that is most popular for collecting survey data is mail interviews.

False (easy, page 183)

 

5. According to the text, using telephone interviews to collect survey data is the least popular method of collecting survey data.

False (moderate, page 183)

 

6. Sample control is the ability of the survey mode to reach the units specified in the sample effectively and efficiently.

True (moderate, page 184)

 

7. The percentage of the total attempted interviews that are completed is referred to as response rate.

True (moderate, page 184)

 

8. In-home interviewing permits easy interviewer supervision and control as the interviewers are traveling door-to-door.

False (moderate, page 185)

 

9. The ability to collect a large quantity of data is an advantage of using telephone interviewing to collect research data.

False (moderate, page 185)

 

10. Disadvantages of using telephone interviewing to collect research data include no use of physical stimuli and poor response rates.

False (moderate, page 185)

 

11. The advantages of using in-home interviewing to collect research data include very good sample control and the ability to collect a large quantity of data.

True (moderate, page 185)

 

12. Disadvantages of using in-home interviewing to collect research data include the potential for interviewer bias and poor sample control.

False (moderate, page 185)

 

13. The advantages of using mall intercept interviews to collect research data include good control of the environment and good response rates.

True (moderate, page 185)

 

14. Poor response rates and the potential for interviewer bias are disadvantages of using mall intercept interviews to collect research data.

False (moderate, page 185)

 

15. Advantages of using computer-assisted personal interviewing to collect research data include good response rates and low potential for interviewer bias.

True (moderate, page 185)

 

16. High social desirability and high cost are disadvantages of using computer-assisted personal interviewing to collect research data.

True (moderate, page 185)

 

17. An advantage of using mail interviews to collect research data is the ability to control the interviewing environment.

False (easy, page 185)

 

18. High interviewer bias is a primary disadvantage of using mail interviews to collect research data.



False (easy, page 185)

 

19. The advantages of using electronic interviewing to collect research data include high speed and low cost.

True (moderate, page 185)

 

20. Low sample control and low response rates are disadvantages of using electronic interviewing to collect research data.

True (moderate, page 185)

 

21. According to the text, despite their value, personal in-home interviews are being replaced by telephone interviews.

False (difficult, page 186)

 

22. The tendency of the respondents to give answers that may not be accurate but that may be desirable from a social standpoint is called social desirability.

True (moderate, page 187)

 

23. Interviewer bias is defined as the error due to the interviewer's not following the correct interviewing procedures.

True (moderate, page 187)

 

24. CAPI interviewing is inappropriate for conducting B2B research at trade shows or conventions.

False (easy, page 188)

 

25. In CAPI, interviewer bias is reduced because the computer administers the interview.

True (difficult, page 188)

 

26. People are more likely to respond and respond sooner to fax surveys than mail surveys.

True (moderate, page 189)

 

27. A large and nationally representative sample of households who have agreed to periodically participate in mail questionnaires, product tests, and telephone surveys are called mail panels.

True (easy, page 190)

 

28. Response bias is the bias that arises when actual respondents differ from those who refuse to participate in ways that affect the survey results.

False (moderate, page 190)

 

 

29. Compared to mail surveys, e-mail surveys offer time and cost advantages, as well as more flexibility.

True (difficult, page 191)

30. Sugging is fund-raising under the guise of research.

False (easy, page 191)

 

31. Promised incentives are incentives that are included with the survey or questionnaire.

False (moderate, page 193)

 

32. A prepaid incentive is sent to only those respondents who complete the survey.

False (moderate, page 193)

 

33. The recording of behavioral patterns of people, objects, and events in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomenon of interest is called observation.

True (easy, page 195)

 

34. Personal observation is an observational research strategy in which human observers record the phenomenon being observed as it occurs.

True (easy, page 196)

 

35. An observational research strategy in which mechanical devices, rather than human observers, record the phenomenon being observed is called mechanical observation.

True (easy, page 196)

 

36. "Optical character-recognition" technology makes it possible to conduct and tabulate surveys on a computer.

True (easy, page 202)

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

37. The interviews conducted by Procter & Gamble on Olay Beauty Bar, where the respondents actually washed their hands and face with the bar in a test area before responding to a survey falls under which of the following categories.

a. traditional telephone interviews

b. computer-assisted telephone interviewing

c. personal in-home interviews

d. mall-intercept personal interviews (moderate, page 180)

e. computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI)

 

38. A structured questionnaire is given to a sample of a population and is designed to elicit specific information from respondents when using the ______________.

a. focus group method

b. exploratory method

c. survey method (moderate, page 181)

d. sampling method

e. motivation elicitation technique

 

39. According to the text, which of the following types of questions does not apply to survey research?

a. questions regarding behavior

b. questions regarding attitudes

c. questions regarding lifestyle characteristics

d. questions regarding observational research (difficult, page 181)

e. questions regarding motivations

 

40. All of the following are advantages of using the survey method EXCEPT:

a. easy to use.

b. reliability.

c. accuracy. (difficult, page 181)

d. simplicity.

e. a and c

 

41. Use of a formal questionnaire that presents questions in a prearranged order is called ______________.

a. exploratory data collection

b. structured data collection (easy, page 182)

c. randomized data collection

d. hypothetical data collection

e. pre-arranged data collection

 

42. Which of the following is NOT recognized as a classification for the various methods of collecting survey data?

a. telephone interview

b. mail interview

c. observational interview (moderate, page 183)

d. electronic interview

e. personal interview

 

43. The method of interviewing that is most popular for collecting survey data is the ______________.

a. telephone interview (moderate, page 183)

b. mail interview

c. observational interview

d. electronic interview

e. personal interview

 

44. Which of the following methods of collecting survey data is the least popular?

a. telephone interview

b. mail interview (moderate, page 183)

c. observational interview

d. electronic interview

e. personal interview

 

45. A list of the disadvantages of telephone interviewing would include which of the following?

a. Questioning is restricted to the spoken word.

b. Interviewers cannot use physical stimuli such as visual illustrations or product demonstrations.

c. Personal rapport and commitment are difficult to establish.

d. Respondents are less tolerant of lengthy interviews.

e. all the above (moderate, page 183)

 

46. ______________ is the ability of the survey mode to reach the units specified in the sample effectively and efficiently.

a. Social desirability

b. Interviewer bias

c. Nonresponse bias

d. Efficiency effect

e. Sample control (moderate, page 184)


 

47. The percentage of the total attempted interviews that are completed is referred to as ______________.

a. sample control

b. response rate (moderate, page 184)

c. social desirability

d. interviewer bias

e. cooperation rate

 

48. Which of the following is NOT a category of personal interviewing methods?

a. telephone (moderate, page 186)

b. in-home

c. mall intercept

d. computer-assisted

e. c and d

 

49. All of the following are examples of advantages of using in-home interviewing to collect research data EXCEPT:

a. it enables the interviewer to provide clarifications to the respondent, allowing for complex questions.

b. it permits the use of physical stimuli and allows the interviewer to display or demonstrate the product.

c. it provides very good sample control since homes can be selected without generating a list of all the homes in a given area.

d. it allows for longer interviews.

e. it permits easy interviewer supervision and control as the interviewers are traveling door-to-door. (difficult, page 185)

 

50. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using telephone interviewing to collect research data?

a. large quantity of data can be collected (moderate, page 185)

b. high sample control

c. good control of the field force

d. good response rate

e. fast

 

51. All of the following are recognized as disadvantages of using telephone interviewing to collect research data EXCEPT:

a. no use of physical stimuli.

b. limited to simple questions.

c. low quantity of data.

d. poor response rate. (moderate, page 185)

e. b and c.

52. The advantages of using in-home interviewing to collect research data include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. good for physical stimuli.

b. least expensive. (moderate, page 185)

c. good sample control.

d. large quantity of data can be collected.

e. complex questions can be asked

 

53. All of the following are recognized as disadvantages of using in-home interviewing to collect research data EXCEPT:

a. low control of field force.

b. potential for interviewer bias.

c. poor sample control. (difficult, page 185)

d. most expensive.

e. may take long to collect the data.

 

54. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using mall intercept interviews to collect research data?

a. good for physical stimuli

b. good control of the environment

c. low cost (moderate, page 185)

d. good response rate

e. complex questions can be asked

 

55. The disadvantages of using mall intercept interviews to collect research data include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. poor response rate. (moderate, page 185)

b. potential for interviewer bias.

c. moderate quantity of data can be collected.

d. high cost.

e. high social desirability.

 

56. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using computer-assisted personal interviewing to collect research data?

a. good response rate

b. low cost (moderate, page 185)

c. low potential for interviewer bias

d. good for physical stimuli

e. very good control of environment

 

57. All of the following are recognized as disadvantages of using computer-assisted personal interviewing to collect research data EXCEPT:

a. high social desirability.

b. moderate quantity of data can be collected.

c. high cost.

d. poor response rate. (moderate, page 185)

e. a and b.

 

58. Which of the following is NOT recognized as an advantage of using mail interviews to collect research data?

a. no interviewer bias

b. good control of environment (moderate, page 185)

c. low social desirability

d. low/moderate cost

e. no field force problems

 

59. The disadvantages of using mail interviews to collect research data include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. high interviewer bias (easy, page 185)

b. limited to simple questions

c. low sample control for cold mail

d. no control of environment

e. low speed

 

60. Which of the following is NOT recognized as an advantage of using electronic interviewing to collect research data?

a. no interviewer bias

b. high speed

c. low cost

d. high sample control (moderate, page 185)

e. hard-to-reach-respondent contact


 

61. All of the following are recognized as disadvantages of using electronic interviewing to collect research data EXCEPT:

a. high interviewer bias. (easy, page 185)

b. limited to simple questions.

c. low sample control.

d. low response rate.

e. moderate quantity of data

 

62. The tendency of the respondents to give answers that may not be accurate but that may be desirable from a social standpoint is called ______________.

a. interviewer bias

b. social desirability (moderate, page 187)

c. nonresponse error

d. response rate

e. the fundamental attribution error

 

63. _____________ is defined as the error due to the interviewer's failure to follow the correct interviewing procedures.

a. Social desirability

b. Nonresponse error

c. Interviewer bias (moderate, page 187)

d. Response rate

e. The fundamental attribution error

 

64. According to the text, which of the following is NOT an advantage of mall intercepts?

a. telephone interviews

b. mail interviews

c. mall intercepts (moderate, page 185)

d. electronic interviews

e. high social desirability

 

65. A large and nationally representative sample of households who have agreed to periodically participate in mail questionnaires, product tests, and telephone surveys are called ______________.

a. focus groups

b. electronic panels

c. exploratory groups

d. mail panels (moderate, page 190)

e. household constituencies

 

66. ______________ is the bias that arises when actual respondents differ from those who refuse to participate in ways that affect the survey results.

a. Response bias

b. Nonresponse bias (moderate, pages 190)

c. Social desirability

d. Interviewer bias

e. Facsimile bias

 

67. Which of the following elements is NOT included in a Web survey system?

a. questionnaire design

b. web server

c. database

d. data delivery program

e. pre-programmed incentives (difficult, page 191)


 

68. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of electronic methods of data collection?

a. Only simple questions can be asked

b. Low sample control

c. Low response rate

d. Only moderate quantities of data can be obtained

e. Low social desirability (moderate, pages 192)

 

69. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text as a method used to improve response rates?

a. prior notification

b. incentives

c. follow-up

d. personalization

e. All of these methods are used to improve response rates. (easy, pages 193-195)

 

70. Which of the following types of incentives is included with the survey or questionnaire?

a. promised incentive

b. observed incentive

c. prepaid incentive (moderate, page 193)

d. virtual incentive

e. Hollywood incentive

 

71. A(n) ______________ is sent to only those respondents who complete the survey.

a. promised incentive (moderate, page 193)

b. observed incentive

c. prepaid incentive

d. virtual incentive

e. completion incentive

 

72. Which of the survey methods listed below is preferable when using physical stimuli?

a. In-home

b. mall intercept

c. CAPI

d. a and c only

e. a, b and c only (easy, page 193)

 

73. The recording of behavioral patterns of people, objects, and events in a systematic manner to obtain information about the phenomenon of interest is called _______________.

a. projection

b. observation (easy, page 195)

c. description

d. exploration

e. micro-pattern research

 

74. ______________ is an observational research strategy in which human observers record the phenomenon being observed as it occurs.

a. Mechanical observation

b. Virtual observation

c. Personal observation (moderate, page 196)

d. Perceptual observation

e. Simultaneous rigor


 

75. An observational research strategy in which mechanical devices, rather than human observers, record the phenomenon being observed is called ______________.

a. personal observation

b. virtual observation

c. perceptual observation

d. mechanical observation (easy, page 196)

e. device recording

 

76. Which of the following is NOT a relative disadvantage of using personal observation methods?

a. high observation bias

b. high analysis bias

c. unsuitable in natural settings (difficult, page 196)

d. all of the selections are relative disadvantages of using personal observation methods

e. a and b only

 

77. A disadvantage(s) of observational data would be:

a. attitudes, motivations and values can't be assessed

b. perceptual differences among observers

c. infrequent behaviors are too expensive to record

d. b and c only

e. a, b, and c (moderate, page 197)

 

78. Telephone interviewing is the dominant mode of administering questionnaires in ______________.

a. US

b. Canada

c. Sweden

d. a and b only

e. a, b, and c (difficult, page 201)

 

 

Essay Questions

 

79. In a short essay, discuss the characteristics of the survey method of obtaining information and list at least three advantages and three disadvantages of survey research.

 

Answer

The survey method of obtaining information is based on questioning respondents. Surveys are used when the research involves sampling a large number of people and asking them a series of questions. Surveys may be conducted in person, by telephone, through a mailed questionnaire, or electronically via the computer.

a. The advantages of the survey method include ease, reliability, and simplicity. Questionnaires are relatively easy to administer. Using fixed-response questions reduces variability in the results that may be caused by differences in interviewers, and enhances reliability of the responses. It also simplifies coding, analysis, and interpretation of data.

b. Disadvantages of the survey method are that respondents may be unable or unwilling to provide the desired information. Also, structured data collection involving a questionnaire with fixed-response choices may result in loss of validity for certain types of data, such as beliefs and feelings. Finally, properly wording questions is not easy.

(moderate, pages 181-182)


 

80. In a short essay, list and discuss at least three advantages and three disadvantages of using telephone interviewing to collect marketing research data.

 

Answer

a. Telephone interviewing, whether conducted with pen and paper or in a computer-assisted format, remains one of the most popular survey methods. This popularity can be traced to several advantages. Interviews can be completed quickly since the travel time associated with personal interviews is completely eliminated. Sample control is high when proper sampling and callback procedures are followed. The control of the field force is good because the interviewers can be supervised from a central location. The response rate of telephone interviewing is good and telephone surveys are not very expensive

b. The disadvantages of telephone interviewing include being restricted to the spoken word. Interviewers cannot use physical stimuli such as visual illustrations or product demonstrations. Moreover, they cannot ask complex questions. Personal rapport and commitment are difficult to establish due to lack of face-to-face interaction between the interviewer and the respondent. This results in less tolerance for lengthy interviews over the phone and limits the quantity of data that can be collected.

(moderate, page 185)

 

81. In a short essay, list and discuss the three categories of personal interviewing methods.

 

Answer

a. Personal in-home interviews in this type of interview, respondents are interviewed face-to-face in their homes. The interviewer's task is to contact the respondents, ask the questions, and record the responses. In recent years, the use of personal in-home interviews has declined. Nevertheless, they are still used, particularly by syndicated firms.

b. Mall intercept personal interviews in this type of interview, respondents are intercepted in shopping malls. The process involves stopping the shoppers, screening them for appropriateness, and either administering the survey on the spot or inviting them to a research facility located in the mall to complete the interview.

c. Computer-assisted personal interviewing in this type of interview, the respondent sits in front of a computer terminal and answers a questionnaire on the screen by using the keyboard or a mouse. This method has been classified as a personal interview technique since an interviewer is usually present to serve as a host and to guide the respondent as needed.

(moderate, pages 186-188)

 

82. In a short essay, list and discuss the three primary methods researchers use in an attempt to improve response rates.

 

Answer

a. Prior notification this consists of sending a letter or e-mail, or making a telephone call to potential respondents, notifying them of the imminent mail, telephone, personal, or electronic survey. Prior notification increases response rates for samples of the general public because it reduces surprise and uncertainty and creates a more cooperative atmosphere.

b. Incentives offering monetary as well as nonmonetary incentives to potential respondents can increase response rates. Monetary incentives can be prepaid or promised. The prepaid incentive is included with the survey or questionnaire. The promised incentive is sent to only those respondents who complete the survey.

c. Follow-up contacting the nonrespondents periodically after the initial contact, is particularly effective in decreasing refusals in mail surveys. The researcher might send a postcard or letter to remind nonrespondents to complete and return the questionnaire. Follow-up can also be done by telephone, e-mail, or personal contact.

(easy, pages 193-195)


 

83. In a short essay, list and discuss the two major observation methods used in descriptive research. Next, list at least one advantage and one disadvantage for each of the two major observation methods.

 

Answer

a. In personal observation,a trained observer collects the data by recording behavior exactly as it occurs. The observer does not attempt to control or manipulate the phenomenon being observed but simply records what takes place. The main advantage of personal observation is that it is a highly flexible method, as the observer can record a wide variety of phenomena. The main disadvantage is that the method is unstructured in that an observation form is generally not used for recording the behavior as it occurs. This leads to high observation bias.

b. Mechanical observation involves the use of a mechanical device to record behavior. These devices may or may not require the respondents' direct participation. The main advantage of mechanical observation is low observation bias, as the behavior is recorded mechanically, not by an observer. Likewise, the data are analyzed according to prespecified norms and guidelines, resulting in low to medium analysis bias. The main disadvantages are that some of these methods can be intrusive or expensive and may not be suitable in natural settings such as the marketplace.

(moderate, page 196)

 

84. In a short essay, list and discuss how interviewing methods would likely vary across countries and explain why.

 

Answer

The popularity of the different interviewing methods varies widely across countries. In the United States and Canada, nearly all households have telephones. As a result, telephone interviewing is the dominant mode of administering questionnaires. This is also true in some European countries, such as Sweden. However, in many other European countries, not all households have telephones. In some developing countries only a few households have them.

In-home personal interviews are the dominant mode of collecting survey data in many European countries, such as Switzerland, and in newly industrialized countries (NICs) or developing countries. While mall intercepts are being conducted in some European countries, such as Sweden, they are not popular in other European countries or in developing countries. In contrast, central location/street interviews constitute the dominant method of collecting survey data in France and the Netherlands.

Due to their low cost, mail interviews continue to be used in most developed countries where literacy is high and the postal system is well developed: the United States, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the Netherlands, for example. In Africa, Asia, and South America, however, the use of mail surveys and mail panels is low because of illiteracy and the large proportion of the population living in rural areas. Mail panels are used extensively only in a few countries outside the United States, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and the Netherlands. However, the use of panels may increase with the advent of new technology. Likewise, although a Web site can be accessed from anywhere in the world, access to the Web or e-mail is limited in many countries, particularly developing countries. Hence, the use of electronic surveys is not feasible, especially for interviewing households.

Various methods may be reliable in some countries but not others. When collecting data from different countries, it is desirable to use survey methods with equivalent levels of reliability, rather than necessarily using the identical method.

(moderate, pages 201-202)

 

Chapter 8 Causal Research Design: Experimentation

 


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 1449


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