Home Random Page


CATEGORIES:

BiologyChemistryConstructionCultureEcologyEconomyElectronicsFinanceGeographyHistoryInformaticsLawMathematicsMechanicsMedicineOtherPedagogyPhilosophyPhysicsPolicyPsychologySociologySportTourism






True/False Questions

 

1. Quantitative research is an unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples, which provides insight and understanding of the problem setting.

False (moderate, page 150)

 

2. Qualitative research explores a problem with few preconceived notions about the outcome of that exploration.

True (moderate, page 150)

 

3. In addition to defining the problem and developing an approach, qualitative research is also appropriate when facing a situation of uncertainty.

True (moderate, page 150)

 

4. Qualitative research is a research methodology that seeks to quantify the data and, typically, applies some form of statistical analysis.

False (moderate, page 150)

 

5. Quantitative research seeks conclusive evidence, which is based on large, representative samples and typically applies some form of statistical analysis.

True (moderate, page 150)

 

6. In contrast to quantitative research, the findings of qualitative research can be treated as conclusive and used to recommend a final course of action.

False (moderate, page 151)

 

7. Whenever a new marketing research problem is addressed, qualitative research must be preceded by appropriate quantitative research.

True (moderate, page 151)

 

8. Qualitative research procedures are classified as either direct or indirect.

True (moderate, page 152)

 

9. A direct approach is one type of qualitative research in which the purposes of the project are disclosed to the respondent or are obvious given the nature of the interview.

True (moderate, page 152)

 

10. The type of qualitative research in which the purposes of the project are disguised from the respondents is called an indirect approach.

True (moderate, page 152)

 

11. An in-depth interview is conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner.

False (moderate, page 152)

 

12. The main purpose of a focus group is to gain insights on issues of interest to the researcher by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market.

True (moderate, page 152)

 

13. According to the text, the typical focus group costs the client about $6,500.

False (moderate, page 152)

 

14. An in-depth interview is recognized as the most important qualitative research procedure.

False (moderate, page 152)

 

15. According to the text, the typical duration of a focus group is less than an hour.

False (moderate, page 153)

 

16. A focus group typically consists of eight to twelve participants.

True (moderate, page 153)

 

17. Focus groups are unstructured, direct, personal interviews in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on a topic.

False (moderate, page 152)

 

18. There are fewer people in an online group than in a face-to-face group.



True (moderate, page 158)

 

19. Online focus groups take less time to set up and complete than traditional focus groups.

False (moderate, page 160)

 

20. Traditional focus groups are much less expensive to conduct than online focus groups.

False (moderate, page 160)

 

21. Depth interviews are described as loosely structured conversations with individuals drawn from the target audience.

True (moderate, page 161)

 

22. An unstructured and indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings regarding the issues of concern is called a projective technique.

True (easy, page 164)

 

23. The evaluation technique is a classification of a projective technique used in marketing research.

False (moderate, page 164)

 

24. The association technique is the projective technique in which the respondent is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind.

True (moderate, page 165)

 

25. A projective technique, in which respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time, is called "word association."

True (easy, page 165)

 

26. The expressive technique requires the respondent to complete an incomplete stimulus situation.

False (moderate, page 166)

 

27. Completion techniques are a natural extension of association techniques, generating more detail about the individual's underlying feelings and beliefs.

True (moderate, page 165)

 

28. A projective technique in which respondents are presented with a number of incomplete sentences and asked to complete them is called sentence completion.

True (easy, page 165)

 

29. The association technique requires the respondent to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue, or description.

False (moderate, page 166)

 

30. The picture response technique is a projective technique in which the respondent is shown a picture and asked to tell a story describing it.

True (moderate, page 166)

 

31. Cartoon characters shown in a specific situation related to the problem in the cartoon test projective technique.

True (easy, page 166)

 

32. A projective technique in which respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else is called sentence completion.

False (moderate, page 166)

 

33. In the third-person technique, the respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person to the situation.

True (easy, page 167)

 

34. In cultural settings, such as the Far East where persons are hesitant to discuss their feelings in group situations, in-depth interviews should be used.

True (moderate, page 171)

 

35. Including a client as a co-researcher in focus-group settings without introducing the client as the sponsor of the research raises ethical problems.

True (moderate, page 173)

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

36. ______________ is an unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples, which provides insights and understanding of the problem setting.

a. Quantitative research

b. Qualitative research (moderate, page 150)

c. Experimental research

d. Hypothetical research

e. Statistical research

 

37. Which of the following types of research explores a problem with few pre-conceived notions about the outcome of that exploration?

a. quantitative research

b. experimental research

c. qualitative research (moderate, page 150)

d. hypothetical research

e. lead research

 

38. In addition to defining the problem and developing an approach, ______________ is also appropriate when facing a situation of uncertainty.

a. qualitative research (moderate, page 150)

b. quantitative research

c. statistical research

d. hypothetical research

e. lead research


 

39. ______________ is a research methodology that seeks to quantify the data and, typically, applies some form of statistical analysis.

a. Quantitative research (moderate, page 150)

b. Qualitative research

c. Experimental research

d. Hypothetical research

e. Thorough research

 

40. Which of the following types of research seeks conclusive evidence, which is based on large, representative samples and typically applies some form of statistical analysis?

a. qualitative research

b. statistical research

c. quantitative research (moderate, page 150)

d. hypothetical research

e. total research

 

41. In contrast to ______________ research, the findings of ______________ research can be treated as conclusive and used to recommend a final course of action.

a. quantitative; qualitative

b. observational; qualitative

c. qualitative; quantitative (moderate, page 151)

d. descriptive; observational

e. partial; total

 

42. Whenever a new marketing research problem is addressed, _____________ research must be preceded by appropriate ______________ research.

a. qualitative; quantitative (moderate, page 151)

b. quantitative; qualitative

c. observational; qualitative

d. descriptive; observational

e. total; partial

 

43. Qualitative research procedures are classified as either ______________ or ______________.

a. primary or secondary

b. direct or indirect (moderate, page 152)

c. descriptive or exploratory

d. theoretical or non-theoretical

e. partial or total

 

44. ______________ is one type of qualitative research in which the purposes of the project are disclosed to the respondent or are obvious given the nature of the interview.

a. A direct approach (moderate, page 152)

b. An indirect approach

c. A diary panel

d. A survey

e. An informed approach

 

45. The type of qualitative research in which the purposes of the project are disguised from the respondents is called ________________.

a. a direct approach

b. a diary panel

c. an indirect approach (moderate, page 152)

d. a survey

e. a masked approach

 

46. ______________ is an interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner.

a. An experiment

b. A focus group (moderate, page 152)

c. A quantitative survey

d. An in-depth interview

e. A moderator group

 

47. The main purpose of ______________ is to gain insights on issues of interest to the researcher by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market.

a. an in-depth interview

b. a quantitative survey

c. an experiment

d. a moderator group

e. a focus group (moderate, page 152)

 

48. According to the text, the typical focus group costs the client about ______________.

a. $400

b. $2,000

c. $4,000 (moderate, page 152)

d. $6,500

e. $10,000

 

49. Which of the following is recognized as the most important qualitative research procedure?

a. the focus group (moderate, page 152)

b. the in-depth interview

c. the quantitative survey

d. the experiment

e. the projective technique

 

50. According to the text, the typical duration of a focus group is ______________.

a. less than an hour

b. two to four hours

c. one to three hours (moderate, page 153)

d. three to five hours

e. more than five hours

 

51. A focus group typically consists of how many participants?

a. one to four

b. five to eight

c. eight to twelve (moderate, page 153)

d. thirteen to fifteen

e. more than fifteen

 

52. All of the following are steps the moderator must take in order to increase the success rate of the focus group EXCEPT:

a. choose which participant will be the group leader. (difficult, page 154)

b. state the rules of group interaction.

c. probe the respondents and provoke intense discussion in the relevant areas.

d. attempt to summarize the group's response to determine the extent of agreement.

e. establish rapport with the group.


 

53. Due to financial constraints, the lack of standardization in qualifications for focus group moderators can be minimized by______________.

a. hiring moderators with at least 5 years of experience

b. putting prospective moderators through company-specific training

c. including video or voice recording devices in the focus group

d. doing focus groups after the survey work on the project is completed

e. preparing a detailed moderator discussion guide (moderate, page 154)

 

54. In focus group reports, the following is (are) included:

a. frequencies and percentages of respondent views

b. only the words of the participants

c. interpretation ends with the "instant interpretation" done with managers immediately after the last focus group has finished for the night

d. analysis of facial expressions and body language (moderate, pages 154-155)

e. a and d both

 

55. Disadvantages of focus groups include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. tendency to regard findings as conclusive.

b. difficulty in moderating focus groups.

c. completely skilled moderators are rare.

d. coding, analysis, and interpretation are difficult.

e. respondents are generally spontaneous. (difficult, page 157)

 

56. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using focus groups in marketing research?

a. The richness of the comments, which come from real customers, makes this technique highly useful.

b. Focus groups are easy to moderate. (difficult, page 157)

c. The comments of one person in a focus group can trigger unexpected reactions from others.

d. The responses in a focus group are generally spontaneous and candid, and they provide rich insights.

e. Ideas are more likely to arise out of the blue.

 

57. Advantages of online focus groups include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. Geographic distance is overcome for respondents.

b. Client can observe from home or office.

c. Respondents can be re-contacted easier.

d. People are less inhibited in their responses.

e. Costs are equivalent to traditional focus groups. (difficult, page 159)

 

58. _______________ are unstructured, direct, personal interviews in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on a topic.

a. Focus groups

b. Depth interviews (moderate, page 161)

c. Quantitative surveys

d. Experiments

e. Probing interviews

 

59. Which of the following are described as loosely structured conversations with individuals drawn from the target audience?

a. experiments

b. quantitative surveys

c. panels

d. conversation interviews

e. depth interviews (moderate, page 161)


 

60. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using depth interviews compared to using focus groups in marketing research?

a. Depth interviews can uncover deeper insights than focus groups.

b. Depth interviews result in a free exchange of information that may not be possible in focus groups.

c. Depth interviews attribute the responses directly to the respondent, unlike focus groups, where it is often difficult to determine which respondent made a particular response.

d. With probing, it is possible to get at the real issue when topics are complex.

e. Skilled depth interviewers are inexpensive and easy to find compared to focus group moderators. (difficult, page 162)

 

61. An unstructured and indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings regarding the issues of concern is called the ______________.

a. projective technique (moderate, page 164)

b. quantitative technique

c. survey technique

d. evaluation technique

e. motivation elicitation

 

62. Advantages of in-depth interviews over traditional focus groups include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. richer discussion of sensitive topics.

b. deeper insights about underlying motives.

c. less social pressure to conform.

d. scheduling of respondents.

e. cost per respondent. (difficult, page 163)

 

63. Which of the following is NOT a classification of the projective techniques used in marketing research?

a. association technique

b. evaluation technique (moderate, page 164)

c. construction technique

d. expressive technique

e. complete technique

 

64. Which of the following describes the projective technique in which the respondent is presented with a stimulus and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind?

a. association technique (moderate, page 164)

b. completion technique

c. construction technique

d. expressive technique

e. evaluation technique

 

65. A projective technique in which respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time, is called ______________.

a. word association (easy, page 165)

b. sentence completion

c. story completion

d. role playing

e. piecewise thought-listing

 

66. Which of the following describes the projective technique that requires the respondent to complete an incomplete stimulus situation?

a. association technique

b. completion technique (moderate, page 165)

c. construction technique

d. expressive technique

e. evaluation technique

 

67. ______________ are a natural extension of association techniques, generating more detail about the individual's underlying feelings and beliefs.

a. Evaluation techniques

b. Completion techniques (moderate, page 165)

c. Construction techniques

d. Expressive techniques

e. Detail techniques

 

68. A projective technique in which respondents are presented with a number of incomplete sentences and asked to complete them is called _______________.

a. word association

b. sentence completion (moderate, page 165)

c. story completion

d. role playing

e. evaluation technique

 

69. Which of the following describes the projective technique in which respondents are provided with part of a story and required to give the conclusion in their own words?

a. word association

b. sentence completion

c. story completion (moderate, page 165)

d. role playing

e. evaluation technique

 

70. A projective technique in which the respondent is required to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue, or description is called the ______________.

a. association technique

b. completion technique

c. construction technique (moderate, page 166)

d. expressive technique

e. evaluation technique

 

71. The ______________ is a projective technique in which the respondent is shown a picture and asked to tell a story describing it.

a. association technique

b. picture response technique (moderate, page 166)

c. construction technique

d. expressive technique

e. evaluation technique

 

72. Cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem in which of the following projective techniques?

a. word association

b. sentence completion

c. story completion

d. motivation elicitation

e. cartoon tests (moderate, page 166)

 

73. In which of the following projective techniques is the respondent presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation?

a. association technique

b. completion technique

c. construction technique

d. evaluation technique

e. expressive technique (moderate, page 166)

 

74. A projective technique in which respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else is called ______________.

a. word association

b. sentence completion

c. story completion

d. role playing (moderate, page 166)

e. evaluation technique

 

75. In which of the following projective techniques is the respondent presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person to the situation?

a. third-person technique (moderate, page 167)

b. sentence completion

c. story completion

d. role playing

e. belief and attitude focus

Essay Questions

 

76. In a short essay, discuss the differences between qualitative research and quantitative research.

 

Answer

a. Qualitative research provides insights and understanding of the problem setting. It explores the problem with few preconceived notions about the outcome of that exploration. In addition to defining the problem and developing an approach, qualitative research is also appropriate when facing a situation of uncertainty, such as when conclusive results differ from expectations. It can provide insight before or after the fact. Qualitative research is based on small, nonrepresentative samples, and the data are analyzed in a nonstatistical way.

b. Quantitative research seeks to quantify the data. It seeks conclusive evidence, which is based on large, representative samples and typically applies some form of statistical analysis. In contrast to qualitative research, the findings of quantitative research can be treated as conclusive and used to recommend a final course of action. The approach to data collection can vary along a continuum from highly structured to completely unstructured. Qualitative or exploratory research lies at the unstructured end of this continuum, and quantitative research lies at the highly structured end.

(easy, page 151)

 

77. In a short essay, describe the characteristics of a focus group, and list and discuss the basic steps to conducting a focus group.

 

Answer

A focus group is an interview with a small group of respondents conducted by a trained moderator who leads the discussion in a nonstructured and natural manner. The main purpose of a focus group is to gain insights on issues of interest to the researcher by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market. Focus groups are the most important qualitative research procedure. They are so popular that many marketing research practitioners consider this technique synonymous with qualitative research.

The following are basic steps to conducting a focus group.

a. Designing the environment focus group sessions are typically held in facilities specially equipped to comfortably accommodate and record a group discussion. The setting is typically an informal conference room equipped with a one-way mirror and microphones throughout the room. Behind the one-way mirror is a viewing room for management.

b. Recruiting and selecting focus group participants a focus group is generally made up of eight to twelve members. A focus group should be homogeneous in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

c. Selecting a moderator the moderator plays a key role and must be well trained. General group management skills as well as background in psychology and marketing typically suffice in most focus group situations. The moderator must be able to establish rapport with the participants.

d. Preparing the discussion guide regardless of the skills or qualifications of the moderator, any focus group will flounder without an outline of the topics to be covered. The discussion guide should reflect the objectives of qualitative research. A moderator's discussion guide can reduce some of the reliability problems inherent in focus groups, such as the lack of consistency in topics covered from group to group.

e. Conducting the group interview during the interview, the moderator must (1) establish rapport with the group; (2) state the rules of group interaction; (3) set objectives; (4) attempt to summarize the group's response to determine the extent of agreement. Ideally, the number of focus groups conducted should increase until the moderator becomes familiar enough with the range of responses and can anticipate what will be said.

f. Preparing the focus group report following the focus group session, the moderator and the managers who viewed the session often engage in an instant interpretation. There is value in this free exchange in that it captures the impressions of the group and may be a good source of information for additional brainstorming. Due to the small number of participants, frequencies and percentages are not usually reported in a focus group summary.

(difficult, pages 152-156)

 

78. In a short essay, list at least five applications of focus groups. Include a specific example of each application to support your answer.

 

Answer

Focus group applications include all of the following:

a. Understand consumer perceptions, preferences, and behavior concerning a product category (how consumers select a long distance telephone company and their perceptions of AT&T, MCI/WorldCom, and Sprint).

b. Obtain impressions of new product concepts (consumer response to the Advantix Photo System by Kodak).

c. Generate new ideas about older products (new packaging and positioning for Cheer detergent).

d. Develop creative concepts and copy material for advertisements (a new campaign for Diet Pepsi).

e. Secure price impressions (the role of price in consumer selection of luxury cars such as Cadillac, Lexus, Mercedes, BMW, and Infinity).

f. Obtain preliminary consumer reaction to specific marketing programs (General Mills' instant coupons for Cheerios).

g. Interpret previously obtained quantitative results (the reasons for the 5.6 percent sales decline of Vanderbilt perfume).

(moderate, page 159)

 

79. In a short essay, list and discuss the four classifications of projective techniques used in marketing research.

 

Answer

a. In association techniques, the individual is presented with a list of words or images and asked to respond with the first thing that comes to mind. Word association is the best known of these techniques. In word association, respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time, and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. The words of interest are interspersed throughout the list that also contains some neutral words to disguise the purpose of the study.

b. Completion techniques are a natural extension of association techniques, generating more detail about the individual's underlying feeling and beliefs. The respondent is asked to complete a sentence, a paragraph, or a story. In sentence completion, respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. In story completion, respondents are given part of a story, enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not enough to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words.

c. Construction techniques follow the same logic as other projective techniques, requiring the respondent to construct a response to a picture or cartoon. These techniques provide even less initial structure than verbally oriented association or completion techniques. In picture response techniques, persons or objects are depicted in pictures, and respondents are asked to write a descriptive story, dialog, or description. In cartoon tests, highly stylized stick characters are used to eliminate references to clothing, facial expressions, and even gender. The respondents are asked to complete the conversation they would attribute to the cartoon characters.

d. In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate, not their own feelings or attitudes, but those of others. The two main expressive techniques are role playing and the third-person technique. In role playing, respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. The researcher assumes that the respondent will project his or her own feelings into the role. In the third-person technique, the respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes.

(difficult, pages 165-166)

 

80. In a short essay, discuss at least two applications of projective techniques and provide three basic guidelines that can enhance the usefulness of these techniques.

 

Answer

With the exception of word associations, projective techniques are used much less frequently than either focus groups or depth interviews. Word association is commonly used for testing brand names and occasionally to measure attitudes about particular products, brands, packages, or advertisements. The usefulness of these techniques is enhanced when the following guidelines are observed:

a. Projective techniques are used when the sensitivity of the subject matter is such that respondents may not be willing or able to answer direct questions honestly.

b. Projective techniques are used to uncover subconscious motives, beliefs, or values, providing deeper insights and understanding as part of exploratory research.

c. Projective techniques are administered and interpreted by trained interviewers who understand their advantages and limitations.

(moderate, page 168-169)

 

81. Why would a researcher choose to use online focus groups over traditional focus groups? Taking the other view, why would traditional focus groups be preferred?

 

Answer

Why would a researcher choose to use online focus groups over traditional focus groups?

People from all over the country or even the world can participate, and the client can observe the group from the convenience of the home or office. Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened. Unlike traditional focus groups, you have the unique opportunity to re-contact group participants at a later date, to either re-visit issues, or introduce them to modifications in material presented in the original focus group. The Internet enables the researcher to reach segments that are usually hard to survey: doctors, lawyers, professional-people, working mothers, and others who lead busy lives and are not interested in taking part in traditional focus groups.

Moderators may also be able to carry on side conversations with individual respondents, probing deeper into interesting areas. People are generally less inhibited in their responses and are more likely to fully express their thoughts. A lot of online focus groups go well past their allotted time since so many responses are expressed. Finally, as there is no travel, videotaping, or facilities to arrange, the cost is much lower than traditional focus groups. Firms are able to keep costs between one-fifth and one-half the costs of traditional focus groups. Online groups are also faster to conduct.

Answer

Taking the other view, why would traditional focus groups be preferred?

Only people that have and know how to use a computer can be surveyed online. Since the name of an individual on the Internet is often private, actually verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. This is illustrated in a cartoon on The New Yorker, where two dogs are seated at a computer and one says to the other "On the Internet, nobody knows you are a dog!" To overcome this limitation, other traditional methods such as telephone calls are used for recruitment and verification of respondents. Body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice cannot be obtained and electronic emotions obviously do not capture as full a breadth of emotion as videotaping.

Another factor that must be considered is the lack of general control over the respondent's environment and their potential exposure to distracting external stimuli. Since on-line focus groups could potentially have respondents scattered all over the world, the researchers and moderator(s) have no idea what else the respondents may be doing while participating in the group. Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Products cannot be touched (e.g., clothing) or smelled (e.g., perfumes).

(moderate, page 158-160)

 

Chapter 7 Descriptive Research Design:

Survey and Observation

 


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 1272


<== previous page | next page ==>
True/False Questions | True/False Questions
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2017 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.05 sec.)