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True/False Questions

 

1. Secondary data is data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem.

False (easy, page 97)

 

2. Primary data represents any data that have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand.

False (easy, page 97)

 

3. According to the text, the collection process of secondary data is rapid and easy compared to the collection process of primary data.

True (easy, page 99)

 

4. Compared to the collection cost of primary data, secondary data is more expensive.

False (moderate, page 99)

 

5. According to the test, a basic rule of research is to examine secondary data first.

True (moderate, page 99)

6. The value of secondary data is typically limited by their degree of fit with the current research problem and by concerns regarding data accuracy.

True (moderate, page 100)

7. The research design specifications or the methodology used to collect secondary data should be examined to identify sources of bias.

True (easy, page 100)

 

8. Availability is mentioned in the text as a primary criterion for evaluating secondary data.

False (moderate, page 101)

 

9. An overall indication of the dependability of the data may be obtained by examining the cost of the source.

False (moderate, page 103)

 

10. External data is data that originates outside of the client organization.

True (moderate, page 103)

 

11. Accounting records, sales reports, and internal experts are typical sources of internal secondary data.

True (moderate, page 103)

 

12. Claritas' PRIZM features lifestyle clusters of every US neighborhood based on geo-coding.

True (moderate, page 103)

 

13. Data mining is marketing that involves using powerful computers with advanced statistical and other software to analyze large databases to discover hidden patterns in the data.

True (moderate, page 104)

 

14. CRM databases can be analyzed in terms of a customer's activity over the life of the business relationship.

True (moderate, page 105)

 

15. Published external sources may be broadly classified as general business data or government data.

True (moderate, page 106)

 

16. A focus group is an example of a general business source of external secondary data.

False (moderate, page 106)

 

17. Guides provide a path to other sources of secondary data contained in directories or published by professional or trade associations.

True (moderate, page 106)

 

18. According to the text, bibliographies are organized alphabetically by topic.

True (moderate, page 106)

 

19. Directories are helpful for identifying manufacturers operating in your market, for compiling names and addresses of associations in your sales territory, or for verifying names and addresses of prospective customers who carry a specific job title.

True (moderate, page 107)

 

20. Indexes and bibliographies are general business sources of external secondary data that provide brief descriptions of companies, organizations, or individuals.



False (moderate, page 106)

 

21. According to the text, A.C. Neilsen is the largest source of secondary data in the United States.

False (moderate, page 107)

 

22. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has been replaced by the Standard Industrial Code (SIC).

False (moderate, pages 108-109)

 

23. The phenomenal growth of databases is a result of the advantages of electronic dissemination of data over printed data that include more accurate information.

False (difficult, page 109)

 

24. Online, Internet, and offline are classifications of computerized databases in terms of how they are distributed.

True (moderate, page 110)

 

25. Online databases are databases stored in computers that require a telecommunications network to access.

True (moderate, page 110)

 

26. Databases that can be searched, accessed, or analyzed on the Internet are called Internet databases.

True (easy, page 110)

 

27. Online describes databases that are available on diskette or CD-ROM.

False (moderate, page 110)

 

28. According to the text, the governmental database is a major type of database.

False (moderate, page 111)

 

29. Bibliographic databases are indexes of studies and reports published in journals, magazines, and newspapers.

True (moderate, page 111)

 

30. For marketers, one of the largest bibliographic databases is the FIND/SVP.

True (moderate, page 111)

 

31. Full-text databases are databases that contain the complete text of secondary source documents comprising the database.

True (moderate, page 111)

 

32. Numeric databases provide information on individuals, organizations, and services.

False (moderate, page 111)

 

33. According to the text, the largest database of companies in the United States is contained in the national Electronic Yellow Pages.

True (moderate, page 111)

 

34. Special-purpose databases are databases that contain information of a specific nature, for example, data on a specialized industry.

True (easy, page 112)

 

35 Computer mapping involves merging internal customer data with external geographic, demographic, and lifestyle data on the same customers.

False (moderate, page 114)

36. Computer mapping is a product of Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

True (moderate, page 114)

 

Multiple Choice

 

37. ______________ is data originated by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem.

a. Primary data (easy, page 97)

b. Secondary data

c. Experimental data

d. Virtual data

e. Problem-focused data

 

38. Which of the following types of data represent any data that have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand?

a. Primary data

b. Secondary data (easy, page 97)

c. Experimental data

d. Virtual data

e. Special data

 

39. According to the text, the collection process of secondary data is ______________ compared to the collection process of primary data.

a. very involved

b. the same

c. rapid and easy (easy, page 99)

d. not correlated

e. long and involved

 

40. Compared to the collection cost of primary data, secondary data is ______________.

a. more expensive.

b. approximately the same cost.

c. less expensive. (moderate, page 99)

d. nonexistent.

e. more elusive


 

41. According to the text, a basic rule of research is to " ______________."

a. examine primary data first

b. examine secondary data first (moderate, page 99)

c. examine experimental data first

d. examine virtual data first

e. examine special data first

 

42. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text as a primary criterion for evaluating secondary data?

a. specifications

b. error

c. currency

d. availability (moderate, page 101)

e. objective (why were the data collected?)

 

43. An overall indication of the dependability of the data may be obtained by examining all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the expertise of the source.

b. the reputation of the source.

c. the trustworthiness of the source.

d. the cost of the source. (moderate, page 103)

e. the source being the original source rather than an acquired source.

 

44. ______________ is data that originates outside of the client organization.

a. Internal data

b. External data (easy, page 103)

c. Modular data

d. Secondary data

e. Supporting data

 

45. All of the following are typical sources of internal secondary data EXCEPT:

a. accounting records.

b. sales reports.

c. internal experts.

d. focus groups. (moderate, page 103)

e. production or operation reports.

 

46. _____________ is marketing that involves using powerful computers with advanced statistical and other software to analyze large databases to discover hidden patterns in the data.

a. Data mining (moderate, page 104)

b. Mass marketing

c. Parallel marketing

d. Traditional marketing

e. Competitive intelligence

 

47. _____________ is a centralized database that consolidates company-wide data from a variety of operational systems.

a. syndicated service

b. bibliography

c. competitive intelligence

d. Standard Industry Classification (SIC) system

e. data warehouse (moderate, page 104)


 

48. Psychographics refers to______________.

a. qualitative inventories of business personalities

b. pictorial renderings of individuals' psychological traits

c. psychological assessments of consumers' behavior

d. graphic depictions of psychological testing results

e. psychological profiles of consumers' activities, interests and opinions (moderate, page 104)

 

49. Published external sources may be broadly classified as ______________ or _____________.

a. syndicated data or nonsyndicated data

b. general business data or government data (difficult, page 106)

c. internal data or external data

d. primary data or secondary data

e. lead or support data

 

50. All of the following are examples of general business sources of external secondary data EXCEPT:

a. guides

b. directories

c. indexes

d. focus groups (moderate, page 106)

e. statistical data

 

51. Which of the following general business sources of external secondary data provides a path to other sources of secondary data contained in directories or published by professional or trade associations?

a. guides (moderate, page 106)

b. indexes and bibliographies

c. directories

d. nongovernmental statistical data

e. conditional data

 

52. All of the following are examples of guides that a researcher should first consult when proceeding with a marketing research project EXCEPT:

a. Business Information Sources.

b. Monthly Catalog of US Government Publications.

c. Encyclopedia of Business Information Sources.

d. A Guide to Consumer Markets (difficult, page 106)

e. a and c

53. According to the text, bibliographies are organized alphabetically ______________.

a. by author

b. by title

c. by company

d. by topic (moderate, page 106)

e. by date

54. Which of the following general business sources are helpful for identifying manufacturers operating in your market, for compiling names and addresses of associations in your sales territory, or for verifying names and addresses of prospective customers who carry a specific job title?

a. guides

b. indexes and bibliographies

c. directories (moderate, page 107)

d. nongovernmental statistical data

e. census data


 

55. ______________ are general business sources of external secondary data that provide brief descriptions of companies, organizations, or individuals.

a. Guides

b. Indexes and bibliographies

c. Directories (moderate, page 107)

d. Nongovernmental statistical data

e. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes

 

56. According to the text, ______________ is the largest source of secondary data in the United States.

a. A.C. Neilsen

b. Yahoo!

c. Arbitron

d. the U.S. government (moderate, page 107)

e. VNU N. V.

 

57. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) ______________.

a. are defined by local communities

b. have a population of at least 50,000

c. comprise counties containing a central city

d. have a population as low as 4,000

e. b and c (difficult, page 108)

 

58. Which of the following is true about census data?

a. The information in census data is available in only one form.

b. The data can be geographically categorized at various levels of detail. (moderate, page 108)

c. Census data does not need to be detailed as long as it is accurate.

d. Integrating enhanced census data with internal company databases is a waste of secondary sources.

e. All of the above

 

59. The phenomenal growth of databases is a result of the advantages of electronic dissemination of data over printed data that include all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

a. more current information.

b. faster data search.

c. convenience.

d. more accurate information. (difficult, page 109)

e. low cost.

 

60. Which of the following is NOT a classification of computerized databases in terms of how they are distributed?

a. online

b. Internet

c. offline

d. parallel (difficult, page 110)

e. a and b

 

61. ______________ databases are databases stored in computers that require a telecommunications network to access.

a. Online (moderate, page 110)

b. Internet

c. Offline

d. Parallel

e. Support


 

62. Databases that can be searched, accessed, or analyzed on the Internet are called _____________ databases.

a. online

b. Internet (moderate, page 110)

c. offline

d. parallel

e. access

 

63. All of the following are examples of some of the many Internet search services on the Internet EXCEPT:

a. Lycos.

b. Yahoo!

c. Webcrawler.

d. A.C. Neilsen (moderate, page 110)

e. Google

 

64. Which of the following classifications describes databases that are available on diskette or CD-ROM?

a. online

b. Internet

c. offline (moderate, page 110)

d. parallel

e. "data in a box"

 

65. According to the text, all of the following represent major types of databases EXCEPT:

a. bibliographic databases.

b. numeric databases.

c. directory databases.

d. governmental databases. (difficult, page 111)

e. full-text databases

 

66. ______________ are indexes of studies and reports published in journals, magazines, and newspapers.

a. Bibliographic databases (moderate, page 111)

b. Numeric databases

c. Directory databases

d. Full-text databases

e. Special-purpose databases

 

67. For marketers, an example of a bibliographic database is ______________.

a. A.C. Neilsen

b. the U.S. government

c. ABI/INFORM (moderate, page 111)

d. Arbitron

e. D & B

 

68. Which of the following major types of databases specialize in disseminating statistical information, such as survey and time series data?

a. bibliographic databases

b. numeric databases (moderate, page 111)

c. directory databases

d. full-text databases

e. special-purpose databases


 

69. ______________ are databases that contain the complete text of secondary source documents comprising the database.

a. Bibliographic databases

b. Numeric databases

c. Directory databases

d. Full-text databases (moderate, page 111)

e. Special-purpose databases

 

70. According to the text, one of the most useful ______________ can be accessed through Mead Data Central's Nexis service.

a. bibliographic databases

b. numeric databases

c. directory databases

d. full-text databases (difficult, page 111)

e. special-purpose databases

 

71. Which of the following major types of databases provide information on individuals, organizations, and services?

a. bibliographic databases

b. numeric databases

c. directory databases (moderate, page 111)

d. full-text databases

e. special-purpose databases

 

72. According to the text, the largest database of companies in the United States is contained in _____________.

a. the FIND/SVP database

b. the national Electronic Yellow Pages (moderate, page 111)

c. the A.C. Neilsen Selling Area database

d. the U.S. Census database

e. D & B database

 

73. ______________ are databases that contain information of a specific nature, for example, data on a specialized industry.

a. Bibliographic databases

b. Numeric databases

c. Special-purpose databases (moderate, page 112)

d. Full-text databases

e. Directory databases

 

74. ______________ involves merging internal customer data with external geographic, demographic, and lifestyle data on the same customers.

a. Geo-demographic coding (moderate, page 113)

b. Syndicated coding

c. Psychographic coding

d. Computer mapping

e. Construction coding

 

75. Which of the following describes information services offered by marketing research organizations that provide information from a common database to firms that subscribe to the service?

a. syndicated services (moderate, page 113)

b. primary services

c. secondary services

d. modular services

e. online services

 

76. Comparisons between numerical data from different countries can be difficult because of all of the following EXCEPT:

a. units of measurement might differ.

b. accuracy may vary across countries.

c. frequency of census data collection can differ.

d. differences in tax evasion rates affects reported business income.

e. language differs across countries. (moderate, page 116)

 

77. According to the text, what is an ethical responsibility of a research agency?

a. To use all forms of data, as well as data obtained from any source - internal or external.

b. Discussion about all issues surrounding the relevance and accuracy of the secondary data used with the client should be done only when required by law.

c. After a detailed analysis of secondary data has been conducted, the researcher should reexamine the collection of primary data stipulated in the proposal. (moderate, page 118)

d. Privacy related to the client's issues are not as important as safe keeping of the client's databases.

e. b and d are valid statement

 

Essay Questions

 

78. In a short essay, discuss the advantages and uses of secondary data. Include a discussion of the disadvantages of secondary data to support your answer.

 

Answer

a. The main advantages of secondary data are the time and money they can save. While it is rare for secondary data to provide all the answers to a nonroutine research problem, analysis of secondary data should always be the first step taken toward solving a research problem. Secondary data can help a researcher (1) identify the problem, (2) better understand and define the problem, (3) develop an approach to the problem, (4) formulate an appropriate research design, (5) answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses, and (6) interpret primary data with more insight. Given these advantages and uses of secondary data, the basic rule of research is to examine available secondary data first. The research project should proceed to primary data collection only when secondary data sources have been exhausted or yield marginal returns.

b. The value of secondary data is typically limited by their degree of fit to the current research problem and by concerns regarding data accuracy. The objectives, nature, and methods used to collect secondary data may not be compatible with the present situation. Also, secondary data may be lacking in terms of its accuracy, compatibility of units of measurement, or time frame.

(easy, pages 99-101)

79. In a short essay, list and discuss at least five specific criteria that are essential for evaluating secondary data.

 

Answer

a. Specifications: Methodology used to collect the data the research design specifications should be critically examined to identify possible sources of bias. Factors such as the size and nature of the sample, response rate and quality, questionnaire design and administration, procedures used for field work, and data analysis and reporting procedures are all important in identifying potential error as well as relevance of the data.

b. Error: Accuracy of the data both secondary and primary data can have errors, stemming from the research approach, research design, sampling, data collection, analysis, and reporting stages of the project. Moreover, it is difficult to evaluate the accuracy of secondary data when the researcher has not directly participated in the research. The further removed the inquiring research is from the originating data source, the greater the possibility of problems with accuracy.

c. Currency: When the data were collected secondary data may not be current. There may be a time lag between data collection and publication, as is the case with census data. Additionally, the data may not be updated frequently enough to answer questions related to the problem at hand. Marketing research requires current data; therefore, the value of secondary data is diminished as they become dated.

d. Objective: The purpose for the study understanding why secondary data were originally collected can sensitize the researcher to the limitations of using them for the current marketing problem. The originating purpose of a previous research study may be irrelevant to the research problem at hand.

e. Nature: The content of the data the nature, or content, of the data should be examined with special attention to the definition of key variables, the units of measurement, categories used, and the relationships examined. One of the most frustrating limitations of secondary data comes from differences in definition, units of measurement, time frame examined, or questionable assumptions regarding the relationships of key variables.

f. Dependability: Overall, how dependable are the data? an overall indication of the dependability of the data may be obtained by examining the expertise, credibility, reputation, and trustworthiness of the source. This information can be obtained by checking with others who have used information this source provides.

(difficult, pages 100-103)

80. In a short essay, list and describe the four forms of general business sources that are categorized as external secondary data.

 

Answer

a. Guides standard or recurring information is summarized in guides. Guides provide a path to other sources of secondary data contained in directories or published by professional or trade associations. Because guides can open the door to other sources of data, they are one of the first sources a researcher should consult.

b. Indexes and bibliographies bibliographies, which are organized alphabetically by topic, are another good place to start external secondary research. Current or historic discussion of a particular topic of interest will be indexed in these references, leading the researcher to a number of authors. Several indexes are available for referencing both academic and business topics.

c. Directories directories provide brief descriptions of companies, organizations, or individuals. They are helpful for identifying manufacturers operating in a specific market, for compiling names and addresses of associations in a sales territory, or for verifying names and addresses of prospective customers who carry a specific job title.

d. Nongovernmental statistical data business research often involves compilation of statistical data reflecting market or industry factors. A historic perspective of industry participation and growth rates can provide a context for market share analysis. Market statistics related to population demographics, purchasing levels, television viewership, and product usage are just some of the types of governmental statistics available from secondary sources.

(moderate, pages 106-07)

81. In a short essay, list and discuss the four specific advantages of electronic dissemination of data over printed data that has led to the phenomenal growth of databases.

 

Answer

a. Current information because printing is no longer an essential step in information dissemination, data can be updated continuously. Publishers who use computers to edit and publish their periodicals can now electronically transfer those documents to relevant databases, making them available with remarkable speed, as compared to the traditional methods of print production and physical distribution.

b. Faster data search online vendors provide increasing uniformity in the search process, enabling even a relative novice at secondary research to access data more quickly and completely.

c. Low cost the relative cost of accessing computerized databases is low.

d. Convenience this has become perhaps one of the greatest benefits, computerized databases have delivered. Information providers now have a direct link to the end user equipped with a microcomputer and modem. They are no longer forced to distribute their products through libraries or retail outlets.

(moderate, page 109)

82. In a short essay, list and describe at least four major types of databases. Include a specific example of each type of database to support your answer.

 

Answer

a. Bibliographic databases are indexes of studies and reports published in journals, magazines, and newspapers. They can be on any subject, ranging from marketing research to technical reports and government documents. Summaries of the report findings are often provided. For marketers, one of the largest bibliographic databases is the FIND/SVP. It reflects the work of over 500 research firms on subjects such as consumer and product studies, store audit reports, subscription research services, and surveys of 55 industries worldwide.

b. Numeric databases specialize in disseminating statistical information, such as survey and time series data. Economic and industry data lend themselves to time series presentations, which are developed when the same variables are repeatedly measured over time. This type of data is particularly relevant for assessing market potential, making sales forecasts, or setting sales quotas. Vendors such as Boeing Computer Services, Data Resources, Evans Economics, and the Office of Economic Coordination and Development all provide time series data.

c. Full-text databases contain the complete text of the source documents contained in the database. One of the most useful full-text business databases can be accessed through Nexis. Mead Data Central's Nexis service provides full-text access to hundreds of business data sources, including selected newspapers, periodicals, company annual reports, and investment firm reports.

d. Directory databases provide information on individuals, organizations, and services. Standard & Poor's Corporate Descriptions is an example of a directory database that provides summary data on publicly held U.S. corporations. A secondary researcher wanting to compile information on a competitor or prospective customer can obtain data related to the growth of that organization, the size of its workforce, and its financial performance.

e. Special-purpose databases are more focused in their scope, such as the Profit Impact of Market Strategies (PIMS). The Strategic Planning Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, maintains PIMS, which reflects its research and analysis on business strategies from more than 250 companies, representing over 2,000 businesses.

(difficult, pages 111-112)

83. In a short essay, explain the appeal of census data to marketers.

 

Answer

a. Relevant data captured. Census data are useful in a variety of marketing research projects. The demographic data collected by the Census Bureau includes information about household types, sex, age, marital status, and race. Consumption detail related to automobile ownership, housing characteristics, work status, and practices as well as occupations are just a few of the categories of information available.

b. Geographical focus. What makes this demographic information particularly valuable to marketers is that these data can be geographically categorized at various levels of detail. These data can be summarized at various levels: city block, block group, census tract, metropolitan statistical area (MSA), consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA), region (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West), or they can be aggregated for the nation as a whole. Census tracts have a population of more than 4000 and are defined by local communities. In urban areas, the MSAs have a population of at least 50000 and comprise of counties containing a central city. In addition, census data are available by civil divisions such as ward, cities, counties, and state.

c. High quality of data. In general, the quality of census data is quite high, and the data are often extremely detailed.

d. Available in a variety of forms. To facilitate business analysis, this information is available in multiple forms. One can purchase computer tapes, diskettes, or CD-ROMs from the Census Bureau for a nominal fee and recast this information into the desired format. Important census data include Census of Housing, Census of Manufacturers, Census of Population, Census of Retail Trade, Census of Service Industries, and Census of Wholesale Trade. Claritas' PRIZM uses census data. Integrating enhanced census data with internal company databases is a useful application of multiple secondary sources.

(moderate, page 108)

 

Chapter 5 Exploratory Research Design:

Syndicated Sources of Secondary Data

 


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 678


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