LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ANTHRAX AND BRUCELLOSIS
Actuality. Anthrax, a prototype disease in the history of microbiology, is caused by Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax remains an impor≠tant disease of animals and occasionally of humans, and B. anthracis is a major agent of bioterrorism and biologic warfare.
The disease caused by brucellae is called brucellosis (undulant fever, Malta fever) and characterized by an acute bacteremic phase followed by a chronic stage that may extend over many years and may involve many tissues.
Primary objectives: to be able to conduct microbiological investigation of anthrax and brucellosis.
QUESTIONS FOR DISCASSION
1. Biological properties of the B. anthracis and brucellae, antigen structure.
2. Microbiological diagnosis of athrax and brucellosis.
3. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of athrax and brucellosis. Features of immunity at the cases of such diseases.
4. Principles of prophylaxis and medical treatment of athrax and brucellosis.
PROCEDURE OF PRACTICAL SESSION
Task 1. To do Ascolyís test.
Task 2. Study the smears from patientís materials.
Task 3 Study and write to the protocol information about immunobiological preparates for diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis of athrax and brucellosis.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICAL WORK
Control of Ag
Control of serum
0.9 % NaCl solution, ml
Diagnostic serum , ml
Extract from diagnostic material, ml
B. anthracis is the typical cells, arranged in long chains, have square edns; spores are located in the center of the nonmotile bacilli.
B. anthracis in tissue is Gram-positive rods, which form capsule.
B. melitensis is Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming coccobacilli.
Brucellosis diagnosticum is common for Hedelson and Wright test. It consists of killed brucrella, 12% NaCL and aniline due.
Anthraxin is allergen. The allegro-diagnostics is based on the ability of the patients organism answer on the injection of the anthraxin by local reddish skin. The skin-allergic test is made into the forearm. The result will be estimated after 24-48 hours. The reaction will be positive if the edema and redness of the skin are more than 8 mm within 24 hours. The result of the test must be estimated in complex with clinical manifestation.
Brucelin is used for making the skin allergic test Burneís. It is 0.1% solution of the polysaccharide-protein complex that is received from vaccine strain by vinegar hydrolysis. The result of the reaction is estimated after 24 hours. Presense of the intensive edema of the skin is a positive reaction. Absence of the local pain and redness do not except the positive test.
Anthracis lived vaccine contains the spore of the avirulent non capsular strain. It is used for planned vaccine prophylactics for a person with high danger of the anthrax infection and also by epidemical indications.
Live brucellosis vaccine contains the live cow-type brucella. It is using for prevention of the brucellosis by epidemic and epizootic indications. However, the vaccination is considered as a temporary prophylactic means in fight with brucellosis. The main is severe keeping sanitary and veterinary rules and making the complex of the non-specific measures.
Killed brucellosis vaccine contains the killed by heat the cow-type and sheep-type species of the brucella. It is using for immunotherapy by chronic brucellosis. It has high sensibillization and allergic ability and it is using only for patients with normegric reaction of the organism on the intra-skin injection of the brucelin. For the patients with hyperergia and allergic reaction and for person with generalized infection the vaccination is dangerous. The intraskin therapy is making often then intravenous. The injection of the brucelin is useful for same patients.
Antianthracis gamma-globulin is a preparation contains antitoxins. It is gamma-globulins fraction of serum of the hyperimmunized animals. There is the diminished amount of ballast matters in such preparation that diminishes probability of development of by-reactions, above all things allergic substantially.
Antianthracis precipetetive serum is received by hyperimmunisation by killed bacteria of the horse. It is using for thermoprecipitation Askoly test. It allows detecting the thermo-stabile antigens of the B. antracis in very small quantity. The antigen is extracting by boiling the researcher materials (skin, wool, fur).
Anthrax luminescent serum is using for detection the antigens in materials from patients in IFT. It consist from specific antibody with luminescent label.