Task 1. Read some rules of writing an abstract and answer the following questions.
1. For what purpose do you write an abstract?
2. How many words should be in it?
3. What grammar tenses and person should you use?
4. What shouldn’t be used while writing?
1. An abstract, or summary, gives the reader a «preview» of what's to come. It allows other students or scientists to scan quickly the large scientific source of literature. The abstract should be a little less technical than the research work itself.
2. Your abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-350 words, (depends on the requirements of Organization Committee) which summarizes the purpose, results and conclusions of a paper.
3. The active voice is preferable. It's clearer and more concise than the passive voice.
Instead of: An increased appetite was manifested by the rats and an increase in body weight was measured.
Write: The rats ate more and gained weight.
4. Use the first person.
Instead of: It is thought.
Write : I think.
Instead of: The samples were analyzed.
Write : We analyzed the samples.
5. Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.
Task 2. Translate the example of an abstract and find keywords to identify the main idea of the article.
The simplicity of completion time distributions for common complex biochemical processes
G. Bel, B. Munsky, and I. Nemenman
Biochemical processes typically involve huge numbers of individual reversible steps, each with its own dynamical rate constants. For example, kinetic proofreading processes rely upon numerous sequential reactions in order to guarantee the precise construction of specific macromolecules. In this work, we study the transient properties of such systems and fully characterize their first passage (completion) time distributions. In particular, we provide explicit expressions for the mean and the variance of the completion time for a kinetic proofreading process and computational analyses for more complicated biochemical systems. We find that, for a wide range of parameters, as the system size grows, the completion time behavior simplifies: it becomes either deterministic or exponentially distributed, with a very narrow transition between the two regimes. In both regimes, the dynamical complexity of the full system is trivial compared to its apparent structural complexity. Similar simplicity is likely to arise in the dynamics of many complex multistep biochemical processes. Thus, these findings suggest not only that one may not be able to understand individual elementary reactions from macroscopic observations, but also that such an understanding may be unnecessary.
Keywords:completion time, …
1.Divide the abstract above into three parts: Introduction, Main Part and Conclusion.
2. Which verbs do the authors use to describe the subject of their work?
3. Can you say that the results of the work satisfy the authors?