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Borrowings Ц words taken from another language and modified according to the patterns of the receiving language. Mostly borrowings are words of Romanic origin (Latin, French, Italian, Spanich). Borrowed words are different from native ones by their phonetic morphological structure and by the grammatical forms.

Etymological doublets. Sometimes the word is borrowed twice from the same language. As a result we have 2 different words with different spellings and meanings, historically they come back to one and the same word. They are called etymological doublets. (e.g. The words shirt and skirt etymologically descend from the same root. Shirt is a native word, and skirt is a Scandinavian borrowing. Their phonemic shape is different, and yet there is a certain resemblance which reflects their common origin. Their meanings are also different but easily associated: they both denote articles of clothing) Etymological doublets may enter the vocabulary by different routes. Some of these pairs, like shirt and skirt, consist of a native word and a borrowed word: shrew, n. (E.) Ч screw, n. (Sc.). Others are represented by two borrowings from different languages which are historically descended from the same root: senior (Lat.) Ч sir (Fr.), canal (Lat.) Ч channel (Fr.), captain (Lat.) Ч chieftan (Fr.). Others were borrowed from the same language twice, but in different periods: corpse [ko:ps] (Norm. Fr.) Ч corps [ko:] (Par. Fr.), travel (Norm. Fr.) Ч travail (Par. Fr.), gaol (Norm. Fr.) Ч jail (Par. Fr.).

Etymological triplets (i. e. groups of three words of common root): hospital (Lat.) Ч hostel (Norm. Fr.) Ч hotel (Par. Fr.), to capture (Lat.) Ч to catch (Norm. Fr.) Ч to chase (Par. Fr.).

International words. Words which are borrowed by several languages; usually convey concepts which are significant in the field of communication. Many of them are of Latin and Greek origin. Most names of sciences are international, e. g. philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, linguistics, lexicology. There are also numerous terms of art: music, theatre, drama, tragedy, comedy, artist, primadonna. Political terms: politics, policy, revolution, progress, democracy, communism, anti-militarism. 20th c. scientific and technological advances brought a great number of new international words: atomic, antibiotic, radio, television, sputnik.

The English language also contributed a considerable number of international words to world languages, such as sports terms: football, volley-ball, baseball, hockey, cricket, rugby, tennis, golf, etc. Fruits and foodstuffs imported from exotic countries often transport their names too and, being simultaneously imported to many countries, become international: coffee, cocoa, chocolate, coca-cola, banana, mango, avocado, grapefruit. International words are mainly borrowings.

Types of borrowings:

Phonetic borrowings are most characteristic in all languages. They are also called Сloan words - properТ. Words are borrowed with their spelling, pronunciation and meaning.

Translation loans are word-for-word or morpheme-for-morpheme of some foreign words and expressions. In such cases the notion is borrowed from a foreign language but it is expressed by native lexical units.

Semantic borrowings are such units when a new meaning of the unit existing in the language is borrowed. It can happen when we have 2 relative languages which have common words with different meanings. There are semantic borrowings between Scandinavian English.

Morphemic borrowings are borrowings of affixes. We can find a lot of Romanic affixes in the English word building system. There are a lot of hybrids in English where different morphemes have different origin. e.g.: beautiful, goddess.

Date: 2016-01-05; view: 166

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