Home Random Page


CATEGORIES:

BiologyChemistryConstructionCultureEcologyEconomyElectronicsFinanceGeographyHistoryInformaticsLawMathematicsMechanicsMedicineOtherPedagogyPhilosophyPhysicsPolicyPsychologySociologySportTourism






Intonation and meaning.

General.

 

It has often been pointed out, and rightly, that no tone group is used exclusively with this or that sentence type Ė question, statement and the like Ė and also that no sentence type always requires the use of one and only one tone group. As a concrete example it would be quite untrue to say that sentences having the form of a question are always said with Tone Group VII. Certainly the learning of English intonation would be a great deal easier than it is if this were the case, but the fact is that intonation is too complex and too flexible to be confined within such narrow rules.

Broadly speaking, any sentence type can be linked with any tone group, and in this chapter we shall consider the effect of our ten tone groups in association with each of four main sentence types, statement, question, command and interjection, and we shall try to explain at every step the contribution which the tone group makes to the total meaning of the sense group. The four sentence types are, and are meant to be, very wide and at times overlapping categories, and we shall not try to define or limit them. They will simply provide examples of the working of intonation in very different sentence structures.

This implied separation of intonation and sentence structure is an analytical procedure which is thoroughly justifiable as an aid to teaching and learning, but it should be remembered that in reality that part of the speakerís meaning which is assumed to be carried by the structure of the sentence Ė words and word order Ė and that part attributed to intonation are welded together to form the total meaning of the utterance at a particular time and in a particular context. However, the student using this book undoubtedly understands the basic meaning of English words, though not the role of intonation; so the separation can and does exist for him, and it is convenient to make use of this in what follows.

So this chapter provides a description of the attitudes conveyed by the different tone groups in association with the various sentence types. This description is a difficult business because it involves using words to suggest effects which are usually achieved by intonation. This means that words alone do not always give a very accurate impression of the attitude conveyed, yet enough can be done to produce a basis for the further development of the studentís comprehension.

 

 

Tone Group I.

TUNES:

1. Low Fall Only.

2. Low Fall + Tail.

3. Low Pre-head + Low Fall (+ Tail).

4. (Low Pre-head +) Low Head + Low Fall (+ Tail).

 

STATEMENTS.

All statements associated with tone groups containing falling nuclear tones (Tone Groups I Ė V) sound definite and complete in the sense that the speaker wishes them to be regarded as separate items of interest. In addition Tone Group I is characteristically used to convey a cool, calm, phlegmatic, detached, reserved, dispassionate, dull, possibly grim or surly attitude on the part of the speaker.



Examples:

Answers to questions:

Whatís your name? \Johnson.
How old are you? \Twenty.
Occupation? Iím a \shop asısistant.
Do you work in London? \Yes, | I \do.
Do you take sugar? I \donít, | \no.

 

Announcements:

Youíve got \lipstick on your ıcollar again.
I must \go.
Itís ııgetting \late.

 

Comments:

Iíve got the sack. Iím ıınot sur\prised.
I wasnít even there when it happened. You should have ıısaid so be\fore.
You can go to blazes. So \thatís how you ıfeel about it.

 

This tone group is often used to denote the final item in the list, the other items having rising tones:

 

Example: You can have /tea, | or /coffee, | or \milk.

 

The use of the final falling tone here implies that the list is complete: there are no other drinks available.

 

QUESTIONS.

1. Special Questions, i.e. those which contain an interrogative word such as What, How, Why, etc. and which cannot be answered by simply saying Yes or No.

As with statements the tone of such questions is detached and reserved; they sound rather flat and unsympathetic, quite often even hostile, and are consequently less commonly heard than such questions with other tone groups.

 

Examples:

Can you lend me some money? ııWhat do you \want it ıfor?
I think itíll be easy. ııHow do you make \that ıout?
I canít possibly do that. ııWhatís so \difficult aıbout it?

 

2. General Questions, i.e. those which can be answered by saying Yes or No.

The main uses for Tone Group I with these questions are:

∑ To put the question forward as a suggestion or a subject for discussion rather than as a request for immediate information. Again the general attitude is detached, phlegmatic and reserved.

 

Examples:

We shall have to take a taxi. But ııcan we af\ford it?
This knifeís too blunt. Is \this one ıany ıbetter?
Iíve got so many things to do. Can \I ıhelp at ıall?

 

When the fall is on the special finite verb, the speaker is querying an assumption on the part of the listener.

 

Example:

If we can afford it, weíll go there. But \can we afıford it?

 

What is in appearance a negative question of this kind may in effect be an exclamation.

 

Example:

Look at this gorgeous material. \Isnít it ılovely!

 

The maximum effect is achieved by placing the nuclear tone on the special finite verb, otherwise the impression is dry and perfunctory.

 

Example:

Look what Iíve been given. ııArenít you \lucky!

 

∑ In a series of short questions where there is only a small change in the form of the question each time.

 

Example:

Is it \red? Is it \blue? Is it \black?

 

∑ Perhaps the most important use of Tone Group I with general questions is for question tags when they follow statements containing the low-falling nuclear tone. In such cases the speaker expects his statement to be confirmed by the listener, indeed he does not consider any answer except a confirmatory one to be possible.

 

Examples:

What a beautiful \day, | \isnít it?
You ought to be a\shamed of yourıself, | \oughtnít you?
Thereíll be \seven of us, | \wonít there?

 

This type of phrase is also used independently as a comment upon a statement made by someone else. When the Low Fall is used the comment is apt to convey a total lack of interest, or else a mood of grim hostility.

 

Examples:

Iíve just come back from Paris. \Have you?
John borrowed your car today. \Did he?

 

∑ This tone group is used in alternative questions to mark the last of the alternatives.

 

Examples:

Would you like /tea | or \coffee?

Can I get you a /gin, | or a /whisky, | or a \beer?

 

The final fall implies that these are the only choices and that the list is complete.

 

COMMANDS.

Tone Group I is used for unemotional, calm, controlled, often cold commands.

 

Examples:

\Donít. \Take it. \Sit, Fido. \Gently, you ıclumsy ıman.

 

Notice that this tone group is rarely used if there are two prominent words in the command; it is therefore uncommon to hear such things as ııDonít be \silly or ıısit \down, in where a Low Head precedes the fall.

 

INTERJECTIONS.

Interjections with Tone Group I sound calm, unsurprised, self-possessed, reserved. They are generally short phrases.

 

Examples:

\Good. \Right. \Oh. \Nonsense. ııVery \nice. Good \morning.

 

Notice in particular \Thank you, and \Thanks, to express genuine, though unexcited gratitude.

 

 

Assignments:

 

1. Listen to the recording of the ďLow Drop IĒ on the tape. Put down the script and intonation marks of the mini dialogues you hear. Figure out what types of sentences the recorded drills are and what attitude do they convey according to the tune they are pronounced with. Prepare test reading of these mini dialogues in pairs.

2. Read the following drills in pairs. Follow the intonation marked in the text. Analyse them from the point of view of their connotations.

 

Intonation Drills:

STATEMENTS.

Verbal context Drill
Whose \book is this? \Yours.
When can you \do it? \Soon.
Where does he \come from? \Wales.
Which subject do \you prefer? \French.
What do you need from the \grocerís? \Cheese.
What \meat do you like best? \Lamb.
How \old are you? \Twenty.
Will you \send it to me? \Gladly, madam.
How ˙much do they \cost? \Ninepence.
Which is the nearest \tube station? \Paddington.
Which ˙firm painted \Johnís house? \Watson and Sons did it, I gather.
What are you studying \this year? Psy\chology.
Can you see him /now? Of \course I can.
How ˙much is he \charging? A \pound, I think.
Where will you be at eight oí\clock? At a com\mittee meeting, unfortunately.
How do I \look? Youíve ıı got a \smut on your nose.
When will it be \finished? ıı Next \Wednesday.
ıı Whatís the ıı house \like? Itís ıı not \large enough.
What would you like for \dinner? I ıı donít \ know.
Why have you \come? I ıı want to \talk to you.

 

QUESTIONS.

Verbal context Drill
He simply must \go. \When?
Borrow someoneís \dictionary. \Whose?
Sheís got something in her \eye. \Which eye?
Iíve ııasked him \several times. \How many times?
I think youíll \like it. \Will I?
They ııwonít ııeven \try. \Wonít they?
Iím going to \Paris to/morrow. \Are you, indeed?
If only the \weather had been better. \Miserable, | \wasnít it?
Youíll find it in the \drawer. In \which drawer?
Youíll have to make it your\self. Just \how, if I may ask?
I canít ˙manage \Monday. Would \Tuesday be more convenient?
He says heís \ill. Is he \really ill?
\Iíll ııshow you ııhow to /work with it. Now \arenít you kind!
I æcanít come this \ /evening. Why ııever \not?
Can you lend me some /money? ııWhat do you \want it for?
Which road shall we \take? ııWhich is the \quicker?
We shall have to take a \taxi. But ııcan we af\ford it?
Iím afraid Iím \busy on /Tuesday. ııCould we ıımeet on \Wednesday perhaps?
I ııdonít know \what to tell Jean. ııNeed we ııtell her \anything?

 

COMMANDS.

Verbal context Drill
Would you ˙mind calling your \dog? \Here.
Shall we ˙have a/nother ˙game? \Letís.
How can I get in \touch with Miles? \Phone him.
What delicious looking \grapes! \Have a few.
ııWhat shall I \do with these figures? Di\vide them.
Johnnieís been pulling my \hair. Now \stop it, you two.
æThese ˙tunes ˙donít æsound ˙very \ /different. Well ex\aggerate them.
æFridayís more conævenient than \ /Thursday. ııCome on \Friday, then.
I donít think Iíll \take your advice. ııDonít ııblame ııme if you ııget into \trouble then.
How can I keep the children \busy? ııGet them to ııtidy up the \garden for you.

 

INTERJECTIONS.

Verbal context Drill
Your very ˙good \health. \Cheers!
¯Letís /go, | /shall we? \Right!
Would you like an /apple? \Thank you.
Heíll be with you on \ Friday. \Splendid!
I believe heís \finished the job. At \last!
Did you lock the back /door? Of \course!
What do you think of \my garden? ııPretty \good.
I can ælend you the ˙money \ /next month. A ıılot of ııuse itíll ııbe \then!

 

Tone Group II.

 

TUNES:

1. Stepping Head + Low Fall (+ Tail).

2. Low Pre-head + Stepping Head + Low Fall (+ Tail).

3. High Pre-head + Low Fall (+ Tail).

 

STATEMENTS.

In addition to the definiteness and completeness associated with all tone groups containing the falling nuclear tone, Tone Group II is used to give categoric, considered, weighty, judicial, dispassionate character to statements. Such pronouncements are more emphatic and often more ponderous-sounding than with Tone Group I.

 

Examples:

Answers to questions:

Are you sure? Absolutely \certain.
What shall I do? I simply canít i\magine.
Canít we do something? You must be \patient.

 

Announcements:

Heís the stupidest man I \know.

I entirely a\gree with you.

I hope itíll be a \lesson to you.

¯You \are lucky!

 

The dispassionateness often shades into withdrawal and impatience.

 

Examples:

Why did he do it? I ˙havenít the slightest i\dea.
What shall I do? You must make up your \own mind.
Whatís the matter? I couldnít be more \angry.

 

On the other hand, this tone group adds weight to expressions of enthusiasm as well as of disapproval, and is very commonly used in such sentences as:

 

It was perfectly \wonderful.

It was simply \terrible.

¯It was \heavenly.

¯She looked \ghastly.

 

SPECIAL QUESTIONS.

Such questions are searching, serious, intense, responsible, and are often used to suggest impatience or irritability, though not necessarily.

 

Examples:

Why not come and have \dinner with us?

Now where did I put my \pipe?

How on earth did you \manage it?

Why did you \do such a stupid thing?

Whatís the \matter with the wretched car?

Why donít you look where youíre \going?

 

Extra emphasis can be given to these questions by making the special finite prominent.

 

Examples:

What are you \doing?

How could you be so \stupid?

 

GENERAL QUESTIONS.

Like Tone Group I, this tone group puts forward the question as a suggestion or as a subject for discussion, but more insistently, more ponderously, often impatiently, so that it is often used in an effort to keep the listener to the point, to make him give a straight answer to a straight question.

 

Examples:

Well couldnít we \borrow some money?

But can I be\lieve you when you say that?

Would you pre˙fer \this chair?

 

Questions beginning with ďWill youÖĒ are in reality imperatives when said with Tone Group II.

 

Examples:

Will you be \quiet?

Will you stop \pestering me?

 

The negative form of these general questions is used simply as an exclamatory device, to turn what seems to be question into an exclamation.

 

Examples:

Isnít it \wonderful!

Havenít they ˙made a \mess of it!

Wouldnít you ˙think theyíd \do something about it!

 

Notice also: Would you be\lieve it! which is purely exclamatory.

As with Tone Group I, this tone group is used to show the final alternative of two or more; it also implies that the choice is restricted to the alternatives named, that there are no other possibilities.

 

Examples:

Would you ˙like /coffee | or would you pre˙fer \tea?

Shall I give you a /hand | or can you \manage?

Can you ˙come to/day | or must it be to\morrow?

 

COMMANDS.

Such commands are firm, serious, considered, weighty, pressing, dispassionate. Often, though not always, they have a ring of impatience.

 

Examples:

Come and ˙have \dinner with us.

Try the \other key.

Now take it \slowly.

For heavenís sake be \careful.

Donít be ri\diculous.

 

This tone group is particularly common with commands containing the emphatic words do or please.

 

Examples:

Do stop \tickling.

Please be \quiet.

 

INTERJECTIONS.

This tone group is very common with interjections and gives great weight and emphasis to them.

 

Examples:

Oh \ good! How ri\diculous! How very pe\culiar! What \nonsense!

What a lovely day for a \picnic! You lazy good for ˙nothing \wretch!

¯You \didnít! ¯The \brute!

 

Greetings with this tone group are very intense, particularly if the first word is accented; Good \morning sounds very hearty and backslapping; ¯Good \morning is rather less so.

 

 

Assignments:

 

1. Listen to the recording of the ďLow Drop IIĒ on the tape. Put down the script and intonation marks of the mini dialogues you hear. Figure out what types of sentences the recorded drills are and what attitude do they convey according to the tune they are pronounced with. Prepare test reading of these mini dialogues in pairs.

2. Read the following drills in pairs. Follow the intonation marked in the text. Analyse them from the point of view of their connotations.

 

Intonation Drills:

 

STATEMENTS:

Verbal context Drill
I ııcanít \ bear / Julia. Neither can \I.
How ˙much does it \cost? Two ˙pounds \ten.
What are you \doing these days? Absolutely \nothing, I fear.
Isnít she very /bright? Mad as a \hatter.
Do you come ˙here /often? Hardly \ever.
What would \you do? I simply canít i\magine.
When can you \come? This after\noon, I think.
What do you think of \this model, madam? It isnít quite what I \want.
I shall miss him \terribly. I firmly believe youíll be better off with \out him.
How did you spend the \morning? I stayed in bed until nearly \lunch time.
¯You /wonít for˙get, | \will you? ¯In\deed I wonít.
I ııdonít be ıılieve you \posted it. ¯I \did post it.
¯Díyou think heís for/gotten? ¯Iím \sure he hasnít.
Heís given up \everything. ¯I \do think itís a pity.
¯The Smiths \are late, | \arenít they? ¯Oh they \never come on time.

 

QUESTIONS.

Verbal context Drill
Iím a˙fraid I canít \do it. Canít do \what?
ııTry ııusing ıısticky \tape. Who asked \your advice?
He ˙works sixteen hours a \day. How on earth does he keep it \up?
Well I \ /think Johníll help. Are you \sure, though?
I \ /think we can go ahead. Dare we \ risk it?
Itís \your turn to pay. What on earth are you \getting at?
He slapped her \face. Whatever came \over him?
I canít ˙find my handbag \anywhere. Well when did you have it \last?
\Tom explained the method to me. But do you really under\stand it?
Iíd like to know who \broke it. Would it surprise you to know \I didnít?
They wonít \lend it to us. ¯Why \not, for heavenís sake?
I æhavenít ætime \ /now. ¯When \will you have time, may I ask?
\ / Iím quite willing. ¯What are we \ waiting for, then?
They \ /ought to be able to afford it. ¯But \can they afford it?
Iíve ııbeen pro\moted. ¯Oh \wonít your parents be pleased!

 

COMMANDS.

Verbal context Drill
\ Lend me a /fiver, | /will you? Go to \blazes. | Use your \own money.
ııWhat do \you want? Show me your \ticket, madam.
The \ /doctor says | itís ıınot \ serious. Then donít make so much \fuss about it.
Which would \you choose, if you were me? For goodness sake make up your \own mind.
What shall I \wear? ˙Put on your very best \dress.
ııHurry /up, ˙Molly. ¯Donít \rush me, Tom.
Itís \terribly difficult. ¯Let \me have a shot at it.
ııWhat have I ııdone wrong \ now? ¯Go a\way, Bill. | (Canít you see Iím /busy.)

 

INTERJECTIONS.

Verbal context Drill
ııAnnís ııgetting \better. What a re\lief!
Ap\ /parently | theyíve ııburied the \hatchet. How \silly it all was!
I canít find my ˙purse \anywhere. How very pe\culiar!
Sheís asked us to \tea. How perfectly \charming of her!
Heís actually \written to me. ¯Good \gracious! | (ııWhatís come \over him?)
Iím a ııfraid \I broke it. ¯Well \really, Gordon! (¯You \are clumsy.)

 

 

Tone Group III.

 

TUNES:

1. High Fall (+ Tail).

2. Low Pre-head + High Fall (+Tail).

3. (Low Pre-Head +) Low Head + High Fall (+Tail).

 

STATEMENTS.

These are just as definite and complete as those with Tone Groups I and II, but they lack the detachment and dispassionateness of the latter, expressing rather a personal concern or involvement in the situation; they sound more lively and interested, sometimes surprised, always more airy and lighter in mood than with Tone Group I or II. Because of this, statements with Tone Group III are particularly common in conversation, where it is so often necessary to show active interest in what is going on.

 

Examples:

When did you see him? On \Thursday. | I ııthought you \knew.
Have you met my brother? \No. | I \havenít.
How did you lose it? I \havenít lost it.
Did you like the play? It was \wonderful. | I was \amazed how good it was.
Iím sorry John wasnít there. But he \was. | I \saw him.
Would you like to join us? Iíd \love to.

 

It would be possible to use Tone Group I in all these examples, but the element of liveliness would then be replaced by calm matter-of-factness or grimness. When a Low Head precedes the High-Falling nuclear tone, the attitude expressed is one of querulous or disgruntled protest.

 

Examples:

John said you disliked the play. I ııliked it im\mensely.
Havenít you brought the car? You ııdidnít \ask me to.
You ought to have told me. I ııdidnít ııthink it was im\portant.

 

SPECIAL QUESTIONS.

These express a lively and interested reaction to the situation.

 

Examples:

I saw the Queen yesterday. \Where?
I know an easy way to do it. But \how?
Weíll meet tomorrow sometime. Well, \when shall we meet?
Iíve got a confession to make. \Now what have you been up to?

 

When the interrogative word precedes the nucleus such questions express a reaction to something very unexpected and, for that reason perhaps, not immediately pleasing to the questioner: this is very much the same effect as with statements.

 

Examples:

ııWhy did you do \that? | It ııwasnít \necessary.

But ııwhen did you \see him? | I ııthought he was a\broad.

ııHow on ııearth did they ıımanage to \get there? | The \roadís flooded.

 

GENERAL QUESTIONS.

In comments, where the High Fall is on the special finite, the reaction is one of mild surprise but acceptance of the listenerís premises. It is more or less equivalent to a surprised repetition of the listenerís statement.

 

Examples:

I like it here. \Do you? | (I thought youíd hate it.)
Sheís thirty-five. \Is she? | (I didnít know that.)
They wonít help us. \Wonít they? | (Weíll see about that.)

 

With a dissenting word the question demands special scrutiny of an assumed fact.

 

Examples:

Iím glad the carís all right again. But \is it? | (Thatís the whole point.)
Itíll be easy if John helps. \Will he, though? | (Thatís what weíre not sure of.)

 

Question tags have the High Fall on the special finite when the previous statement has a High Fall in it, or when the preceding statement ends in a rise. In any case, as with Tone Group I, it expresses the speakerís expectation of nothing but a confirmatory answer.

 

Examples:

Itís ııabso ıılutely ri\diculous, | \isnít it?

Youíre ıınot /frightened, | \are you?

Itís all /right, | \isnít it?

Itís ænot im\ /possible, | \is it?

 

When the nucleus follows the special finite, the question is offered as a subject for discussion rather than a request for information, exactly as with Tone Group I. The difference seems to be that with this tone group the speaker sees less chance of his suggestion being accepted as the right solution because it is an unexpected one. There may too be some suggestion of impatience with the listener for not seeng that this is the critical point. In effect the questioner says Ė ďThe only question that has to be settled is this and then the whole situation is clear.Ē

 

Examples:

Nobody seems anxious to do it. Can \I have a try?
I canít think who to turn to. ııWould it be ııany ııgood ııtrying \John?
I doubt whether David will help. ııIs it ııfair to ex\pect him to?
I canít do it today. Well ııcan you ııdo it to\morrow, then?

 

COMMANDS.

Commands with Tone Group III show more warmth than with the previous tone groups, often connoting a critical surprise that such an obvious course should not have occurred to the listener.

 

Examples:

Watch me jump off this wall. \Donít. | (Youíll hurt yourself.)
Whatís the matter, John? \Look. | (Itís snowing.)
What on earth shall I do? ııTry it a\gain. | (Youíve no alternative.)
I wish Ann didnít dislike me so. Well ııdonít be so \rude to her in future.

 

INTERJECTIONS.

Interjections with Tone Group III are more emotional, but also less weighty than those with Tone Group II.

 

Examples:

Good morning, Jack. Good \morning, Fred. | (I didnít expect to see you here.)
Hereís your pen. \Oh, | \thank you. | (I thought Iíd lost it.)
Itís six oíclock. \Heavens! | (Iím late.)
John isnít coming. What an ex ııtraordinary \thing!
Youíve passed your exam. What ııwonderful \news! | (Itís almost incredible.)

 

When the nucleus is preceded by the Low Head, as in the last two examples, there seems to be almost a sense of affronted surprise that the speakerís expectations should have been so wildly wrong.

 

 

Assignments:

 

1. Listen to the recording of the ďHigh DropĒ on the tape. Put down the script and intonation marks of the mini dialogues you hear. Figure out what types of sentences the recorded drills are and what attitude do they convey according to the tune they are pronounced with. Prepare test reading of these mini dialogues in pairs.

2. Read the following drills in pairs. Follow the intonation marked in the text. Analyse them from the point of view of their connotations.

 

Intonation Drills:

STATESMENTS.

Verbal context Drill
Does John /always for˙get? \Always.
How often has he \visited you? \Never.
Whoís been eating my \grapes? \No oneís been eating your wretched grapes.
Were there many /people ˙there? \Crowds.
How ˙many of his books have you \read? \All of them.
When did you \see him? On \Thursday. | (I ııthought you \knew.)
For goodness sake \hurry. I \canít. | My \legís hurting.
ııWhat are \you doing here at this hour? Iím \waiting for somebody.
Iíll take \this book. You \mustnít. | Itís \ Maryís.
Heís promised to a\pologise. Itís the \ least he can do.
Youíll be æthere on \ /Friday, | \wonít you? ııNo I \wonít. | Itís ııreally an im\possible day.
Whatever was he \thinking of? I ııcanít i\magine. | Heís ııusually so re\liable.
Have you been here /long? Weíve been ııwaiting for \ ages.
I wonít \drink that nasty stuff. But itíll ııdo you \good.
What ˙time do we \leave? Iíve ııjust \told you. | At a ııquarter past \six.

 

QUESTIONS.

Verbal context Drill
Iím going to \Switzerland. \When?
You can ııwin \easily. \How so?
It æcertainly isnít \ /mine. \Whose is it, then?
Sheís thirty \five. \Is she? | (I ııdidnít \know that.)
It ædoesnít appear \ /regularly. \Doesnít it? | (You \do surprise me.)
\ Sorry to ııbe so /late. What \ happened?
I said no such \thing. What \did you say, then?
Weíll meet sometime to\morrow. Well \when exactly?
I wanted to see you about \tennis. Is \that all?
ııWhat shall we \do about that party? Need we do \anything about it?
You mustnít \speak to him. ııWhy \ not?
I canít find the file \anywhere. ııWhat have you \done with it?
How much \money have you got? ııWhatís that ııgot to ııdo with \you?
Iím quite booked \up next week. Will the ııweek \after suit you better?
But Iím ıısuch a \hopeless player. Does it ıımatter \what sort of a player you are?

 

COMMANDS.

Verbal context Drill
\/Careful! | Youíll \fall. \Help. | (I \am falling.)
Shall we ˙have a game of /bridge? \Yes, | \letís.
Letís \go. \Wait a moment.
Iím \awfully /sorry. For\get it.
Iím most \grateful to you. Donít \mention it, my dear chap.
I wonít have that man in my \house. Now be \reasonable, dear.
The bus doesnít \run on /Sundays. ııCome by \train, then.
ııWhat shall I ııdo if he \hits me? ııHit him \back, you silly ass.
What should I \tell him? ııTell him eııxactly what you \think.

 

INTERJECTIONS.

Verbal context Drill
Heís over \seventy. \Well! | (Iíd never have be\lieved it.)
Alice is coming as \ well. \ Really! | (What a lovely sur\prise!)
Heís finished the ˙job al\ ready. Good \gracious!
\Isnít it a lovely view! En\chanting!
He ııwants me to ııgive him a \reference. What ııever \next!
Heís ııactually en\gaged. ııWould you be\lieve it!

 

 

Tone Group IV.

 

TUNES:

1. (Low Pre-head +) Stepping Head + High Fall (+ Tail).

2. (Low Pre-head +) High Fall(s) + High Fall (+ Tail).

3. High Pre-head + High Fall (+ Tail).

 

 

STATEMENTS.

Though complete and definite, like all the falling tone groups, these statements avoid both the ponderousness of Tone Group II and the disgruntled effect of Tone Group III, whilst still retaining the lightness, the airiness and the effect of personal participation in the situation, characteristic of the High Falling nuclear tone.

 

Examples:

What time is it? Itís half ˙past \twelve.| I didnít realize how \late it was.
How did the game go? Very \well. | We ˙won surprisingly \easily.
Is Mike still doing well? Better than \ever. | I can hardly be\lieve it.

 

As this tone group avoids the massive calmness or detachment of Tone Group II, it is very often used to express warmth, a desire not to appear cool to the listener.

 

Examples:

Can you come and see me? Iím afraid I \canít. | Iíve got to ˙catch a \train.
Whatís the time? I donít \know. | I suppose itís about \twelve.

 

It was a very dark night said with Tone Group II would be appropriate as the opening of a story, where the narrator wishes to keep aloof from the proceedings; but in conversation, for instance as an answer to the question How did you manage to loose yourself?, It was an usually dark night, with Tone Group IV, would usually be more suitable, since it is less crushing and lighter in tone.

 

SPECIAL QUESTIONS.

This way of putting such questions avoids the coldness and possible hostility of Tone Group II and the surprise and displeasure of Tone Group III. It is, on the other hand, perfectly brisk and businesslike and is a very common way of asking these questions.

 

Examples:
Whatís the \time?

When did you ar\rive?

How long did it ˙take you to \get here?

Where on earth have you \been all this time?

 

GENERAL QUESTIONS.

These questions have very much the same effect as those with Tone Group III, except that the impatience or querulousness is absent. The speaker puts forward his question for discussion, or as the key question in the discussion. Often enough he puts the question so that he may himself answer it negatively, so that it often, though not necessarily, sounds as though he is skeptical about the result.

 

Examples:

John says he has an alibi. Can he \prove it?
Shall we take Frank into our confidence?   Dare we \risk it?
Shall we try again? Well would it be ˙any \use? | (I rather doubt it.)

 

Suggestions are more often made with this tone group than with Tone Group II or III, sounding much less insistent or critical.

 

Examples:

Would you prefer \this chair?

Can I \help you at all?

 

COMMANDS.

Such commands seem to suggest a course of action to the listener, without the surprise of Tone Group III and without the calm demand for action of Tone Group II.

 

Examples:

This teaís too hot. Put some ˙more \milk in it.
How much do you want for it? Make me an \offer.
The lid doesnít fit. Try turning it the other way \round.

 

INTERJECTIONS.

Tone Group IV here expresses mild surprise without the affront of Tone Group III and without the massive impact of Tone Group II.

 

Examples:

I must stay and do some work. How very \noble of you!
Weíve sold our house. What an extraordinary thing to \do!
Look, itís snowing. Oh, \yes. | So it \is!

 

 

Assignments:

 

1. Listen to the recording of the ďHigh DiveĒ on the tape. Put down the script and intonation marks of the mini dialogues you hear. Figure out what types of sentences the recorded drills are and what attitude do they convey according to the tune they are pronounced with. Prepare test reading of these mini dialogues in pairs.

2. Read the following drills in pairs. Follow the intonation marked in the text. Analyse them from the point of view of their connotations.

 

Intonation Drills:

STATESMENTS.

Verbal context Drill
What was the \show like? First \rate.
I feel so \sleepy. So do \I.
They \ /are twins, /arenít they? ˙Yes but theyíre not a \bit alike.
ɦ

Date: 2016-01-05; view: 640


<== previous page | next page ==>
Find and mark the possible items of the following intonation patterns. Use the example to help you. | The beginning of War.
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2017 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.048 sec.)