Edward Jenner, the discoverer of vaccination for small-pox, was born at a time when the patterns of British medical practice and education were (1) coming/undergoing gradual change.
Jenner was a country youth, the son of a clergyman. Because Edward was only five when his father died, he was (2) brought up/grown by an elder brother who was also a clergyman. Edward (3) visited/attended grammar school and at the age of 13 was apprenticed to a (4) near/ nearby surgeon. In the following eight years Jenner (5) acquired/inquired knowledge of medical and surgical practice that helped him much in his future work. On (6) graduating/completing his apprenticeship at the age of 21, he went to London and became the house pupil of John Hunter, who was on the staff of St. George's Hospital and was soon to become one of the most (7) prominent/top surgeons in London. Even more important, however, he was an anatomist, biologist, and experimentalist of the first (8) rank/range; not only did he collect biological (9) specimens/specimenbut he also concerned himself with problems of physiology and function.
Smallpox was (10) widespread/broadspread in the 18th century, and occasional outbreaks of special intensity resulted in a very (11) high/highly death rate. Jenner, even as an apprentice, had been impressed by the fact that a person who had (12) been ill /suffered an attack of cow-pox, a relatively harmless disease that could be (13) contracted/contacted from cattle, could not take the small-pox, (14) that is/so could not become infected whether by accidental or intentional exposure to the small-pox. Thinking over this phenomenon Jenner (15) concluded/completed that cow-pox not only protected against small-pox but also could be transmitted from one person to another (16) as/likea deliberate mechanism of protection.
The story of the great breakthrough is well known. Complications were many. Vaccination seemed (17) common/simple, but the vast number of persons who practiced it did not necessarily (18)precede/followthe procedure that Jenner had recommended, and deliberate or unconscious innovations often (19) collaborated/lessenedthe effectiveness. Pure cow-pox vaccine was not always easy to obtain, nor was it (20) easy/commonto preserve or transmit.
Despite errors and occasional chicanery, the process of vaccination spread (21) fastly/rapidlyand the death rate from small-pox plunged. Jenner, although he received worldwide recognition and many honours, (22) made/did noattempt to enrich himself through his discovery and actually devoted so much time to the cause of vaccination that his (23)private/personalpractice and his (24) private/personalaffairs suffered (25)severely/several.In 1802 Parliament voted him a sum of £10,000 and in 1806 a (26) father/furthersum of £20,000.
Jenner not only received honours but also (27)aroused/ arouseopposition and found himself subjected to attacks and calumnies, (28)in spite/despitewhich he continued his activities (29) in behalf/in sake of vaccination. His wife, (30) sick by/ill with tuberculosis, died in 1815, and Jenner retired from public life.
Exercise 41. Fill in the gaps with the words given.
Influenza is an (1)___, infectious, contagious disease of the respiratory tract, especially the trachea, colloquially called (2)___ or, less often, grippe. The (3)___ of a simple attack include dry (4)___, (5)___ throat, nasal obstruction and discharge, and burning of the eyes; more complex cases are characterized by (6)___, sudden onset of (7)____, headache, (8)___ of muscles and joints, and occasional gastrointestinal symptoms. In (9)___ cases, symptoms fade and (10)___ drops to normal in a few days; the (11)___ of death increases if the disease is accompanied or followed by viral pneumonia or bacterial pneumonia.
Since the 16th century, at least 31 influenza pandemics, which are very widespread (12)___, have been described. The most destructive epidemic of modern times, that of 1918, is estimated to have caused 20 million deaths; in the U.S. about 500,000 persons died, generally following the (13)___ of bacterial pneumonia.
The different types of influenza virus appear in cycles; for instance, the variant appearing in the 1978-79 season was (14)___ to the virus that was widespread during the early 1950s. Some (15)___ exists that pandemics occurring 60 to 70 years apart are caused by the same form of virus. Based on this theory, public health officials expected in 1976 that the same virus that caused the 1918 pandemic would reappear. When this form of the organism was isolated, (16)___ against it was prepared and mass inoculation was carried out in the U.S. No (17)___, however, of that form of influenza occurred.
Exercise 42.Fill in the gaps with the words given.
Epidemics are outbreaks of contagious diseases (1)___ an unusually large number of people or involving an extensive geographical area. Epidemics, which may be short-lived or last for years, are brought on by the widening reach of disease-causing organisms. These organisms can be (2)___ by food or water, directly from one person to another through (3)___ contact, or by the exchange of bodily secretions such as saliva, semen, or (4)___. Insects, rodents, and other disease-carrying animals, are agents that may (5)___ human populations with epidemic diseases.
Among the diseases that have occurred in epidemic proportions throughout history are bubonic (6)___, influenza, smallpox, typhoid (7)___, tuberculosis, cholera, bacterial meningitis, and diphtheria. Occasionally, childhood (8)___ such as mumps and German measles become epidemics.
In the past, when sanitary conditions were (9)___ and diseases were little understood, epidemics occurred periodically and killed thousands of people. One of the largest epidemics ever recorded was the (10)___ of bubonic plague that raged throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia from 1347 to 1350. This epidemic, known as the Black Death in Europe, is estimated to have killed one-third of the European population. An outbreak of influenza in 1918 killed more than 20 million people around the world. Such global epidemics are commonly called (11)___. Wars and foreign invasions have traditionally provided breeding grounds for epidemic disease. Prior to the 20th century, every European war produced more (12)___ from disease than from the use of weaponry. Colonists arriving in the western hemisphere carried disease-causing organisms to which they were immune but that devastated the populations of Native Americans who had no previous exposure to these organisms. Due to the spread of disease the population of central Mexico (13)___ by an estimated 90 percent in the first 50 years of Spanish domination.
Epidemics can often be (14)___ or controlled by immunization, improved sanitation, and by other public (15)___ measures such as the use of pesticides to wipe out disease-carrying insects. During the 1960s and 1970s, the medical profession hoped that epidemic diseases were well on their way to (16)___. Poliomyelitis, an (17)___ viral disease of the central nervous system that had once been a scourge of young people in the United States, no longer appeared in significant numbers, and other diseases, including smallpox, tuberculosis, malaria, and cholera seemed almost neutralized. But since the 1970s, 30 new disease-causing (18)___, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and hepatitis C, have been identified, most of them emerging from new settlements in the rain forests of South America, Africa, and Asia. New antibiotic-resistant strains of influenza, tuberculosis, meningitis, cholera, and malaria have also appeared.
Fortunately, disease (19)___ and control establishments are now in place through most of the world and have repeatedly shown themselves capable of responding quickly and (20)___ to sudden outbreaks of disease.
II. MEDICAL CARE
Two-tier, general practitioner/physician/family doctor, health care, preventive medicine, health education, complaint, cost-effective, diagnosis, tedious, ‘capitation’ allowance.
Welfare state, hospitals run by charities, medical insurance, emergency, to subsidize, medical care, to have smb on one’s book.
Medical school, maturity, adaptability, common sense, humility, clinical medicine, therapy, compassionate approach, pre-clinical years, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology, clinical years, disease/illness, medical course, residency.