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187 Zelinsky, Nation into State, p. 204-5.

188 Ibid., p. 202-3; O'Leary, To Die For, p. 201-24; Boleslaw Mastai and Marie-Louise D'Orange, The Stars and Stripes: The American Flag As Art and As History from the Birth of the Republic to the Present (New York: Knopf, 1973), p. 130, quoted in Zelinsky, Nation into State, p.202-3.

189 O'Leary, To Die For, p. 233-234, citing Halter v. Nebraska 205 U. S. 34-46 and quoting Halter et at. v. State 105 Northwestern Reporter, p. 298-301.

190 J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer and Sketches of 18th-Century America (New York: Penguin, 1981), p. 68, 70; Israel Zangwill,The Melting Pot: A Drama in Four Acts (New York: Arno Press, 1975), p. 184.

191 Milton M. Gordon, Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 89; Michael Novak,Further

Reflections on Ethnicity (Middletown, PA: Jednota Press,1977),p.59.

192 Horace M. Kallen, The Structure of Lasting Peace: An Inquiry into the Motives of War and Peace (Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1918), p. 31; Horace M. Kallen,Cultural Pluralism and the American Ideal: An Essay in Social Philosophy (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1956); Horace M. Kallen, Culture and Democracy in the United States: Studies in the Group Psychology of the American Peoples (New York: Boni and Liveright, 1924).

193 Philip Gleason, Speaking of Diversity: Language and Ethnicity in Twentieth-Century America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), p. 51.

194 Randolph Bourne quoted in T. Alexander Aleinkoff, "A Multicultural Nationalism", American Prospect, no. 36 (January-February 1998), p. 81.

195 Arthur Mann, The One and the Many: Reflections on the American Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), p. 137, 142-47.

196 Theodore Roosevelt quoted in Gordon, Assimilation in American Life, p. 122 from Edward N. Saveth, American Historians and European Immigrants, 1875-1925 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1948), p. 121.

197 Robert A. Carlson, The Quest for Conformity: Americanization Through Education (New York: John Wiley,

1975), p. 6-7.

198 Louis Brandeis, Address, Faneuil Hall, Boston, July 4, 1919, quoted in John J. Miller, The Unmaking of Americans (New York: Free Press, 1998).

199 John F. McClymer, "The Federal Government and the Americanization Movement, 1915-1924", Prologue, 10 (Spring 1978), p. 24; Ronald Fernandez, "Getting Germans to Fight Germans: The Americanizers of World War I", The Journal of Ethnic Studies, 9 (Summer 1981), p. 61.

200 Carlson, The Quest for Conformity p. 113; Edward George Hartmann, The Movement to Americanize the Immigrant (New York: Columbia University Press 1948), p. 92; Henry Ford, quoted in Otis L. Graham and Elizabeth Koed, "Americanizing the Immigrant, Past and Future", The Social

Contract, 4 (Winter 1993-94), p. 101; Gerd Korman, Industrialization, Immigrants and Americanization (Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1967), p. 147, 158-59; Higham, Strangers in the Land, p. 244-45.



201 Higham, Strangers in the Land, p. 249.

202 Carlson, The Quest for Conformity, p. 89-90.

203 John F. McClymer, "The Americanization Movement and the Education of the Foreign-Born Adult, 1914-25", in Bernard J. Weiss, ed., American Education and the European Immigrant, 1840-1940 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992), p. 98; McClymer, "The Federal Government and the Americanization Movement, 1915-1924", p. 40; Hartmann, The Movement to Americanize the Immigrant, p. 64ff.

204 Miller, The Unmaking of Americans, p. 221, 223.

205 Carl F. Kaestle, Pillars of the Republic: Common Schools and American Society, 1780-1860 (New York: Hill & Wang 1983), p. 161-62.

206 Stephen Steinberg, The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity, and Class in America (New York: Atheneum, 1981), p. 54.

207 Joel M. Roitman, The Immigrants, the Progressives, and the Schools (Stark, KS: De Young Press 1996), p.l; McClymer", The Americanization Movement", p. 103; Miller, The Unmaking of Americans, p. 49; Roitman, The Immigrants, the Progressives, and the Schools, p. 51-52; Carlson, The Quest for Conformity, p. 114; Reed Ueda, "When Assimilation Was the American Way", Washington Post, 2 April 1995, p. R10.

208 Curti, Roots of American Loyalty, p. 223ff; Paul Stern, "Why Do People Sacrifice for Their Nations?" Political Psychology, 16 (2, 1995), p. 223-24.

209 Robin M. Williams, Jr., American Society: A Sociological Interpretation (New York: Knopf, 1952), p. 527, quoted in Gleason, Speaking of Diversity, p. 175.

210 Gleason, Speaking of Diversity, p. 175; Arthur A. Stein, The Nation at War (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), p. 92; Philip Gleason, "American Identity and Americanization", in Stephan Thernstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1980), p. 47; Albert

O. Hirschman, Journeys Toward Progress (New York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1963), p. 137. See also J.M. Winter, The Great War and the British People (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986).

211 Hedrick Smith, The Russians (New York: Quadrangle New York Times Books 1976), p. 302-03.

212 Jack Citrin, Ernst B. Haas, Christopher Muste, Beth Reingold, "Is American Nationalism Changing? Implications for Foreign Policy", International Studies Quarterly,38 (March 1994), p. 3-5.

213 Robert D. Kaplan, "Fort Leavenworth and the Eclipse of Nationhood", Atlantic Monthly, 278 (September 1996), p. 75ff; Diana Schaub, "On the Character of Generation X", The Public Interest, 137 (Fall 1999), p. 23; George Lipsitz, "Dilemmas of Beset Nationhood: Patriotism, the Family, and Economic Change in the 1970s and 1980s", in Bodnar, ed., Bonds of Affection, p. 251ff; Walter Berns, "On Patriotism", The Public Interest, 127 (Spring 1997), p. 31; Peter H. Schuck, Citizens, Strangers, and In-Betweens: Essays on Immigration and Citizenship (Boulder: Westview Press, 1998), p. 163ff.

214 Horace Kallen, quoted in Arthur Mann, The One and the Many: Reflections on the American Identity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), p. 143-144; Michael Walzer, What It Means To Be An American (New York: Marsilio, 1992), p. 62.

215 Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Disuniting of America (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992), p.43; Nathan Glazer, We Are All Multiculturalists Now (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997).

216 Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York: Harper, 1944), p. 4.

217 Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Lecture on the Times", in Emerson, Prose Works (Boston: Fields, Osgood, 1870), vol. l,p. 149.

218 Andrew Kull, The Color-Blind Constitution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 1-2, 146-148; U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Equal Protection of the

Laws in Higher Education, 1960 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960), p. 148.

219 Senator Hubert Humphrey, 110 Congressional Record, 1964, p. 6548-49, quoted in Edward J. Erler, "The Future of Civil Rights: Affirmative Action Redivivus", Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics, and Public Policy, 11 (1997), p. 26.

220 Kull, Color-Blind Constitution, p. 202; Hugh Davis Graham, The Civil Rights Erea: Origins and Development of National Policy, 1960-1972 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 150; Herman Belz, Equality Transformed: A Quarter Century of Affirmative Action (New Brunswick: Translation, 1991), p. 25; Nathan Glazer,Ethnic Dilemmas, 1964-1982 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), p. 162.

221 Bayard Rustin, "From Protest to Politics: The Future of the Civil Rights Movement", Commentary, 39 (Feb. 1965), p. 27; Glazer, Ethnic Dilemmas, p. 161-162.

222 Graham, Civil Rights Era, p. 250; Glazer, Ethnic Dilemmas, p. 262; Kull, Color-Blind Constitution, p. 200-203, quoting Labor Department regulations.

223 Kull, Color-Blind Constitution, p. 204-205; Belz, Equality Transformed, p. 51, 55

224 Kull, Color-Blind Constitution, p. 214-16.

225 Jack Citrin, "Affirmative Action in the People's Court", The Public Interest, 122 (Winter 1996), p. 46; Seymour Martin Lipset, "Affirmative Action and the American Creed", Wilson Quarterly, 16 (Winter 1992), p. 59.

226 Richard Kahlenberg, "Bob Dole's Colorblind Injustice", Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 10-16 June 1996, p. 24; Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom, America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), p. 452; New York Times, 1 June 2001, p. A17.

227 Lieberman quoted in New York Times, 10 March 1995, p. A16; John Fonte, "Why There Is A Culture War: Gramsci and Tocqueville in America", Policy Review, 104 (December 2000 and January 2001), p. 21.

228 Connerly quoted in Fonte, "Why There Is A Culture War", p. 21; Ward Connerly, Creating Equal: My Fight

Against Race Preferences (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2000), p. 228.

229 Seymour Martin Lipset, "Equal Chances versus Equal Results", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 523 (September 1992), p. 66-67.

230 Lipset, "Affirmative Action and the American Creed", p. 58; Washington Post, 11 October 1995, p. A11; Citrin, "Affirmative Action in the People's Court", p. 43; William Raspberry, "What Actions are Affirmative?" Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 28 August-3 September, 1995, p. 28; Citrin, "Affirmative Action in the People's Court", p. 41.

231 Citrin, "Affirmative Action in the People's Court", p. 43.

232 Ibid.; Boston Globe, 30 April 1997, p. A19.

233 Thernstrom and Thernstrom, America in Black and White, p. 437; City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Company, 488 U.S. 469 (1989).

234 Thernstrom and Thernstrom, America in Black and White, p. 456-459.

235 Washington Post/Kaiser Family Foundation /Harvard University, "Race and Ethnicity in 2001: Attitudes, Perceptions, and Experiences", (August 2001); Princeton Survey Research Associates poll, January 2003; Jennifer Barrett, "Newsweek Poll: Bush Loses Ground", Newsweek, 14 February 2003, online; Jonathan Chait, "Pol Tested",New Republic, 3 February 2003, p. 14.

236 Belz, Equality Transformed, p. 66-67; Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1973), p. 417; Thernstrom and Thernstrom, America in Black and White, p. 492.

237 Martinez in Miami Herald, 12 October 1988, cited in Raymond Tatalovich, Nativism Reborn?: The Official English Language Movement and the American States(Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1995), p. 99.

238 Tatalovich, Nativism Reborn?, p. 1-2.

239 Unamuno quoted in Carlos Alberto Montaner, "Talk EnglishYou Are in the United States", in James Crawford, ed., Language Loyalties (Chicago: University of Chicago

Press, 1992), p. 164; Karl W. Deutsch, Nationalism and Social Communication (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966).

240 Immigration and Nationality Act, Title III, Chapter 2, Section 312, (8 U.S.C. 1423).

241 42 U. S. 1973b (f), Pub. L. 94-73, 89 Stat. 400; Tatalovich, Nativism Reborn?, p. 105; James Crawford, Hold Your Tongue: Bilingualism and the Politics of "English Only" (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992), p. 272, n. 13; Washington Post, 14 November 2002, p. T3; Chicago Sun-Times, 2 May 1996, p. 29, 5 August 2002, p. 1.

242 Asian American Business Group v. City of Pomona in Crawford, Language Loyalties, p. 284-287; Wall Street Journal, 21 August 1995, p. AS; Alexander v. Sandoval,532 U.S. 275 (2001), New York Times, 25 April 2001, p. A14.

243 Ruiz, et al. v. Hull, et al., 191 Ariz. 441, 957 P.2d 984 (1998); cert. denied, 11 January 1999.

244 Edward M. Chen, "Language Rights in the Private Sector" in Crawford, ed., Language Loyalties, p. 276-77.

245 James Crawford, Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice (Trenton: Crane, 1989), p. 33; J. Stanley Pottinger, Office for Civil Rights, memorandum, 25 May 1970; Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools, 351 F. supp. 1279 (1972); Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974).

246 Crawford, Bilingual Education, p. 39; William J. Bennett, "The Bilingual Education Act: A Failed Path", in Crawford, ed., Language Loyalties, p. 361.

247 Time, 8 July 1985, p. 80-81.

248 Scheuer quoted in Bennett, "The Bilingual Education Act: A Failed Path" in James Crawford, ed., Language Loyalties, p. 361.

249 Badillo quoted in New York Post, 17 October 2000, p. 16.

250 Carol Schmid, "The English Only Movement: Social Bases of Support and Opposition among Anglos and Latinos", in Crawford, ed., Language Loyalties, p. 202.

251 Jack Citrin, Donald Philip Green, Beth Reingold, Evelyn Walters, "The 'Official English' Movement", and the Symbolic Politics of Language in the United States",Western Political Quarterly, 43 (September 1990), p. 540-41; Camilo Perez-Bustillo, "What Happens When English Only Comes To

Town?: A Study of Lowell "Massachusetts", in Crawford, ed., Language Loyalties, p. 191-201.

252 Citrin et. al., "The 'Official English' Movement", p. 548-52; Zogby International poll, 15-17 November and 10-13 December 1998.

253 Tatalovich, Nativism Reborn?, p. 85-88.

254 Ibid.,p. 114-122.

255 Ibid., p. 136-148,150-160.

256 Geoffrey Nunberg, "Linguists and the Official Language Movement", Language, 65 (September 1989), p. 581.

257 Boston Globe, 6 November 2002, p. A1.

258 Rocky Mountain News, 6 November 2002, p. 29A; Boston Globe, 10 November 2002, p. 10.

259 Schmid, "The English Only Movement", in James Crawford, ed., Language Loyalties, p. 203-5; Max J. Castro, "On the Curious Question of Language in Miami" in Ibid., p. 179; Peter Skerry, Mexican Americans: The Ambivalent Minority (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), p. 285; Jack Citrin, "Language Politics and American Identity", The Public Interest, 99 (Spring 1990), p. 104.

260 Steve Farkas, ed., A Lot to be Thankful For, (New York: Public Agenda, 1998).

261 Boston Globe, 31 August 1997, p. A12; New York Times, 15 August 1997, p. A39; New York Times, 5 June 1998, p. A12; Glenn Garvin, "Loco, Completamente Loco: The Many Failures of 'Bilingual Education,'" Reason, 29 (January 1998), p. 20.

262 James Counts Early, "Affirmations of a Multiculturalist", in Robert Royal, ed., Reinventing the American People: Unity and Diversity Today (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1995), p. 58; Clifford Orwin, "All Quiet on the (post)Western Front", The Public Interest, 123 (Spring 1996), p. 10.

263 Pamela L. Tiedt and Iris M. Tiedt, Multicultural Teaching: A Handbook of Activities, Information, and Resources (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 3rd ed., 1990), p. 7.

264 Mikulski quoted in Mann, The One and the Many, p. 29; Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot (Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1963), p. 16-17,290.

265 Mann, The One and the Many, p. 37, 38-39.

266 Stephen Steinberg, The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity, and Class in America (New York: Atheneum, 1981), p. 51.

267 Thaddeus V. Gromada, "Polish Americans and Multiculturalism", 4 January 1997, presidential address at meeting of Polish American Historical Association, in conjunction with American Historical Association, New York Hilton Hotel, New York City.

268 Betty Jean Craige, American Patriotism in a Global Society (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996), p. 65-66.

269 Lilia I. Bartolome, "Introduction", in Alfonso Nava et al., Educating Americans in a Multicultural Society (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2nd ed., 1994), p. v.

270 James A. Banks, Multiethnic Education: Theory and Practice (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1994), p. 3.

271 Tiedt and Tiedt, Multicultural Teaching, p. xi.

272 Sandra Stotsky, Losing Our Language (New York: Free Press, 1999), p. 59-62, reporting the research of Charlotte Iiams, "Civic Attitudes Reflected in Selected Basal Readers for Grades One Through Six Used in the United States from 1900-1970" (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Idaho, 1980).

273 Paul Vitz, Censorship: Evidence of Bias in Our Children's Textbooks (Ann Arbor: Servant Books, 1986), p. 70-71; Nathan Glazer and Reed Ueda, Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks (Washington, D.C,: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1983), p.15.

274 Robert Lerner, Althea K. Nagai, Stanley Rothman, Molding the Good Citizen: The Politics of High School History Texts (Westport: Praeger, 1995), p. 153, citing the study by Diana Ravitch and Chester E. Finn, What Do Our 17-Year-Olds Know? (New York: Harper and Row, 1987), p. 270-72; Stotsky, Losing our Language, p. 72-74,86-87,90, 294, n20.

275 Glazer, We Are All Multiculturalists Now, p. 83; Schlesinger, The Disuniting of America, p. 123; American Council of Turstees and Alumni, Inside Academe, 8 (Fall 2002), p. 1, 3, citing the council's report, Restoring America's

Legacy: The Challenge of Historical Literacy in the 21st Century (2002).

276 Lerner, et al., Molding the Good Citizen, p. 153, citing U.S. News and World Report, 12 April 1993, p. 56; American Council of Trustees and Alumni, Newsletter, 18 December 2000, citing the council's report, Losing America's Memory: Historical Illiteracy in the 21st Century (2000).

277 U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 2000 Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (Unpublished, selections available online athttp://www.ins.usdoj.gov/graphics/aboutins/statistics/ybpage.htm ).

278 Economist, 24 June 2000, p 63.

279 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Trends in International Migration: Continuous Reporting System on Migration, (2000 ed. Paris, France: OECD, 2001).

280 World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision-Highlights, Annex Tables (28 February 2001) (United Nations Population Division).

281 National Institute of Population and Social Security Research, Population Projections for Japan: 1996-2100 (1997).

282 Ole Waever et al., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, (London: Pinter, 1993), p. 23.

283 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Trends in International Migration, p. 304.

284 U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 2000 Statistical Yearbook.

285 Milton M. Gordon, Assimilation in American Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964), p. 70-71.

286 Peter D. Salins, Assimilation, American Style (New York: Basic Books, 1997), p. 6, 48-49.

287 Gordon, Assimilation in American Life, p. 127, 244-45.

288 Will Herberg, Protestant Catholic Jew (Garden City: Doubleday, 1955), p. 33-34; George R. Stewart, American Ways of Life (New York: Doubleday, 1954), p. 23, cited in Gordon, Assimilation in American Life, p. 12728.

289 Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1954), p. 84-85.

290 Michael Piore, Birds of Passage: Migrant Labor and Industrial Societies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), p. 151.

291 Gordon, Assimilation in American Life, p. 190; Thomas Sowell, Migrations and Cultures: A World View, (New York: Basic Books, 1996), p. 48. For an excellent overview and analysis of the successful assimilation of pre-World War II immigrants and their descendants, see Richard Alba and Victor Nee, Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003), chap. 3.

292 Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), p. 264.

293 American Muslim Council, Zogby poll, released 28 August 2000.

294 Kambiz Ghanea Bassiri, Competing Visions of Islam in the United States: A Study of Los Angeles (Westport, : Greenwood Press, 1997), p. 43-49.

295 Corey Michael Spearman, "The Clash of Civilizations in Dearborn, Michigan" (Term paper, Kalamazoo College, Michigan, March 2000), p. 7, quoting Abu Mustafa Al-Bansilwani, "There Has to Be a Better Wayand There Is!", Ummah, I (no. 1, 1999), p. 1-2.

296 Daniel Patrick Moynihan, "The Sonnet About the Statue of Liberty", New York, 19 May 1986), p. 58.

297 Sowell, Migrations and Cultures, p. 39-40; John Harles, Politics in the Lifeboat: Immigrants and the American Democratic Order (Boulder: Westview Press, 1993), p. 99.

298 Henri Weber, quoted in The Economist, 12 February 2000, p. 20.

299 Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted (Boston: Little, Brown, 2nd ed., 1973) p. 272; Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society (New York: Norton, rev. ed., 1998), p. 17; Harles, Politics in the Lifeboat, p. 4.

300 Salins, Assimilation, American Style, p. 48-49; Josef Joffe, personal conversation.

301 Piore, Birds of Passage: p. 149 ff.

302 Roberto Suro, Strangers Among Us (New York: Knopf, 1998), p. 325.

303 Washington, Jefferson, Franklin quoted in Matthew Spalding, "From Pluribus to Unum", Policy Review, no. 67 (Winter 1994), p. 39-40.

304 Gordon, Assimilation in American Life, p. 132-33; Marcus Lee Hansen, The Immigrant in American History (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940), p. 132; Heinz Kloss, The American Bilingual Tradition (Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1977), p. 128; Will Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998), p. 28-29.

305 Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics (New York: Harper, 1951), p. 58ff.

306 New York Times, 9 December 1999, p. 1, 20; 5 March 2000, p. A1, A20; Washington Post, 18 September 1993, p. A1; New York City Department of City Planning,The Newest New Yorkers: 19951996: An Update of Immigration to NYC in the Mid '90s (8 November 1999).

307 James Dao, "Immigrant Diversity Slows Traditional Political Climb", New York Times, 28 December 1999, p. A1; John J. Miller, The Unmaking of Americans (New York: Free Press, 1998), p. 218-19; Edward P. Lazear, Culture Wars in America (Stanford: Hoover Institution, Essays in Public Policy, no. 71, 1996), p. 9, citing 1990 census data.

308 Nathan Glazer, "Immigration and the American Future", The Public Interest, 118 (Winter 1995), p. 51; "Issue Brief: Cycles of Nativism in U.S. History", Immigration Forum, 19

May 2000, p. 1.

309 Robert William Fogel, The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press 2000), p. 60; Barry Edmonston and Jeffrey P. Passel, "Ethnic Demography: U.S. Immigration and Ethnic Variations", in Edmonston and Passel, eds., Immigration and Ethnicity (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press 1994), p. 8; Campbell J. Gibson and Emily Lennon, Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign Born Population of the United

States, 1850-1990 (Washington: Census Bureau Population Division, Working Paper 29, February 1999).

310 Richard Alba and Victor Nee, "Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Immigration", International Migration Review, 31 (Winter 1997), p. 842-43; Douglas Massey, "The New Immigration and Ethnicity in the United States", Population and Development Review, 21 (September, 1995), p. 645, quoted in Peggy Levitt, The Transnational Villagers (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), p. 18.

311 U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1999 Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 2002), p. 19; U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2001, p. 45.

312 Stephen A. Camarota, Immigrants in the United States2002: A Snapshot of America's Foreign-Born Population (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, Backgrounder, November 2002), p. 1; Boston Globe, 10 March 2003, p. A3, citing William Frey's analysis of Census Bureau figures.

313 Frederick Douglass, quoted in Judith N. Shklar, American Citizenship (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991), p. 48, 52.

314 Ronald Takaki, Double Victory: A Multicultural History of America (Boston: Little, Brown 2000), p. 82.

315 John Higham, Strangers in the Land (New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988) p. 12ff; Kevin Phillips, The Cousins' Wars (New York: Basic Books, 1999), p. 543 ff.

316 John A. Hawgood, The Tragedy of German-America (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1940), p. 291-301; Ronald Fernandez, "Getting Germans to Fight Germans: The Americanizers of World War I", Journal of Ethnic Studies, 9 (1981), p. 64-664 Higham, Strangers in the Land, pp, 216 -17.

317 New York Times, 5 July 1918, p. 1, 6; John J. Miller, "Americanization Past and Future", Freedom Review, 28 (Fall 1997), p. 11.

318 Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970), p. 20; Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 175.

319 Michael Walzer, What It Means to Be an American (New York: Marsilio, 1992), p. 49.

320 Boston Globe, 27 May 2002, p. A1; 15 August 2002, p. A3; 23 November 2002, p.A15.

321 Miller, The Unmaking of Americans, p. 219-21.

322 Marilyn Halter, Washington Post Weekly Edition, 24 July 2000, p. 21.

323 CM. Peter Skerry, Mexican Americans: The Ambivalent Minority (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), passim; and Michael Jones-Correa, Between Two Nations: The Political Predicament of Latinos in New York City (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998) p.5, 69-90.


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