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VI Arrange the following words in pairs of

a) synonyms, b) antonyms:

a) important, supply, trite, labor, provide, main, racial, group, work

b) old, wild, many, lately, young, effective, domestic, few, non-effective, early


VII Answer the following questions:

1) What is agriculture?

2) With what does it produce?

3) Is agriculture the oldest industry?

4) When did it begin?

5) Who discovered how to grow plants from seeds?

6) When did inventors begin to develop machinery for planting, cultivating and harvesting crops?

7) What did farming depend on heavily?


VIII. Read and translate the text B :

"Kinds of agriculture"

Farmers practice many kinds of agriculture. Each kind can be classed in a number of ways. Climate is a common basis for classification. For example, the kinds of farming practiced in the tropics can be classed as tropical agriculture. Many of the kinds of farming practiced in cooler regions can be classed as middle- latitude agriculture. Most kinds of agriculture can also be classed according to the amount or value of the goods produced per unit of land. Classified in this way, agriculture is intensive or extensive.

Intensive agriculture is practiced chiefly where farmland is scarce. It requires large amounts of fertilizer, labor or other resources. Each unit of land is this made as productive as possible. The small truck farms (vegetable farms) on the outskirts of many big cities are examples of intensive agriculture a truck farm may cover only 1acre (0.4 hectare). But it may produce thousands of dollars' worth of vegetables yearly.

Farmers practice extensive agriculture where land is plentiful, rainfall is light, and the soil is not especially fertile. Extensive agriculture requires relatively little investment in equipment and supplies per unit of land, and each unit yields a relatively low return. The vast sheep ranches of Australia and the Western United states are examples of extensive agriculture. A ranch may cover 40, 000 acres (16. 000 hectares) or more and raise thousands of sheep. But each animal needs about 4 acres (1.6 hectares) of land for grazing. The return per unit of land is therefore only a few dollars' worth of wool or meat yearly. The many kinds of agriculture can also be classified as either commercial or subsistence. Commercial farms produce crops and animals chiefly for sale. Subsistence farmers produce goods mainly for themselves.

The great majority of farms in the United states, Canada and other industrial countries are commercial farms. They can be divided into two main groups: (1) specialized farms and (2) mixed farms.

Specialized farms learn all or most of their income from the sale of one kind of crop or livestock. Many of these farms use mass- production methods and require large investment in equipment and supplies.

Mixed farms, a diversified farms, raise a variety of crops and livestock. Such farms produce crops to sell and to feed their livestock. Most farms in Europe and many in the Midwestern United States are mixed farms.



IX Ask questions about the text.

Get your fellow student answer them.

Date: 2016-01-03; view: 213

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