1. Before the end of this lesson another hectare of the world's forests will be destroyed forever. Why is this happening? There are two reasons-land and wood. In many countries the trees have been cut down because the land was needed for animals or crops. In other parts of the world the trees are cut down because their wood is wanted. This wood is used by the local people for firewood. Or it is exported to Japan, Europe and North America. There it is used for buildings or it is made into furniture.
2. Unfortunately, in most places the trees won't be replaced. The soil in the forests is very thin, but it is protected by the trees. When the trees are cut down, the soil is washed away by the rain or blown away by the wind. Soon nothing can be grown on it. The forest becomes a desert. Then more land will be needed and more trees will be cut down.
3. When the forest is destroyed, it isn't only the trees that are lost, the homes of millions of animals and plants are destroyed, too. At the moment there are between five and ten million species of animals and plants on the Earth. By the year 2000, one million of these will be extinct- that's one species every hour. All kinds of species are in danger- fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, insects and shellfish – as well as thousands of plants.
4. Who is to blame for this disaster?
The answer is simple: all of us. There are just too many people in the world. The world's population is now over one billion people. Of course, it's very easy to blame the local people. We don't chop down trees. They do. But the products are bought by people like you and me- the hi-fi with its teak loudspeakers, or the nice mahogany chairs. Why are the forests being destroyed? Just look around. You're probably sitting on it or listening to it.
XI. Speak on environmental problems
We could divide the problems into waste issues and resource issues.
waste issues: resource issues
air pollution forests
- smog - over harvesting
- ozone depletion - cutting trees to make
- acid rain pasture and grazing
Water pollution soil
- hazardous waste - erosion
- sewage problems - irrigation / desertification
- heavy metals - contamination
- agricultural wastes - over-mining
- polluted water coming wildlife
- into the country from - hunting
- other countries - loss of habitat
- loss of species
Solid waste water
- landfills dumps - drought
- incinerators / air pollution - overuse
- plastic / litter energy
- hazardous waste storage - overuse of coal, oil
- type of energy resources
(Indefinite Tense Forms)
at any time today
(Perfect Tense Forms)
1. The telegram hasjust been sent.
2. This house has been built for a year (since autumn).
3. The work had been done by five o’clock yesterday.
4. Everything will have been arrangedby the end of day (by the time he comes back, etc.)
(Continuous Tense Forms)
A new road
There when I stayed
In this town.
Read and translate:
Margaret sang a song A song was sung by Margaret.
The policeman caught the thief The thief was caught by the policeman
The teacher taught the class The class was taught by the teacher.
The boys kicked the ball The ball was kicked by the boys.
The grocer sells tea Tea is sold by the grocer.
Cotton grows in Shymkent region. Cotton is grown in Shymkent region.
I' m afraid the fire will destroy I’m afraid those houses will be
those houses. destroyed by the fire.
Complete the sentences using the following words and word combinations:
The desired level has been achieved...
The living standards are being raised...
The wages were increased...
The plan had been adopted...
last year, already, greatly at that time, before this took place, all over the country, but there is still much to do, it is a great successes had been achieved, before the new people live very well there, because people are doing their best.