unemployment compensationUnemployment compensation is money paid by the government to people who have laid off from their jobs. The people collect money for a certain number of weeks or until they find new work.
minimumMinimum is the lowest possible. A minimum income would be the smallest amount of money a person can earn.
industrialIndustrial describes something that has to do with manufacturing or business. An industrial country is one that has more people who work manufacturing than work on farms.
The Present Continuous Tense
1. She is in her room. She is looking through the morning newspapers.
2. They are working at this problem at present.
The Past Continuous Tense
1. He was working in the garden at six in the morning (when I came home, after lunch.)
2. They were studying at the University in 1977.
The Furture Continuous Tense
1. I wonder what he will be doing at this time tomorrow.
2. They will be writing their course papers in April.
3. I can send the telegram. I 'll be passing by the post-office.
Form Participle I from the following verbs and translate them:
to tell, to send, to take, to read, to look, to put, to last, to open, to sit, to come, to walk, to sing, to reply, to die, to lie, to offer.
Read and translate the following sentences, paying attention to the functions of Participle I.
1. The speaking man is our teacher.
2. Going to the University I met my friend.
3. Being in Astana she visited us.
4. The man reading at the window is my friend from London.
5. I saw playing boys in my garden.
6. I don't like people speaking very loud.
Use the verbs in Present Continuous Tense.
1. I write a letter.
2. Richard walks to school.
3. My father works in his garden.
4. The book lies on the table.
5. The gardener cuts down.
6. Shopkeepers tie up the parcels.
Use sentences in Present Continuous or Present Simple.
Example: (play) Elizabeth plays the piano well. She is playing it now.
1. (drive) my father _____ to his office every day. He _____ there now.
2. (speak) he generally _____ Greek, but he ____ English today.
3. (make) mother _____ toast in the kitchen just now. She usually_____ toast for breakfast.
4. (strike) Listen, the clock_____. Count the strokes.
Translate parts of sentences paying attention to the functions of
1. The student translating the text is ... .
2. The translating student... .
3. Translating the text the student ... .
4. The student is translating the text... .
5. Going along the street I ... .
6. He is going along the street... .
7. The man going along the street... .
Use correct form of, "to be".
1. Where ... you going? – I ... going to the supermarket.
2. I ... thinking about the dress I saw in the shop window yesterday.
3. We ... going to be late. The shop will be closed.
4. ... you going to the baker' s? Buy a loaf of bread for me, please.
5. We ... driving too fast and didn't see the traffic lights.
6. He ... choosing an umbrella too long but didn't buy any.
7. While my mother ... paying for the things I bought a bar chocolate for myself.
8. I hope it ... not ... raining tomorrow. It's our shopping day.
9. He ... celebrating his birthday tomorrow. Let's go and buy him some present.
10. What ... you looking for? – I ... trying to find a Christmas present for my wife.
Read the text a) retell it; b) retell it in the Past, begin with "Yesterday I attended...".
We are at an English wedding. The bride, the groom, the relatives and the quests are standing outside the house. The bride is wearing a long white dress and is having some blue flowers in her left hand. The groom is wearing a traditional morning suit and is having a top hat in his right hand. They are all smiling, because they are very happy. In a few minutes they are going to get into a Rolls- Royce and drive to a restaurant for celebration.
At the restaurant they are going to eat a big cake and drink champagne. Then they will be opening all their presents. Some people will be making speeches and both of the mothers will be crying. The guest will be dancing, telling jokes, singing songs and wishing the bride and the groom happiness. They are going to be happy for ever and ever and have a lot of children.
b) indoor, reduce, tiny, outdoor, odorless, increase, smelly, large.
- less careless, treeless
- ness happiness, kindness
- y sunny, heavy
- tion pollution, irrigation
- able comfortable, usable
- ent (ant) different, pollutant
III Read and translate the text A:
Kinds of pollution
There are several kinds of environmental pollution. They include air pollution , water pollution, soil pollution, and pollution caused by soil wastes, noise, and radiation.
Air pollution turns clear, odorless air into hazy, smelly air that harms health, kills plants, and damages property. People cause air pollution both outdoors and indoors. Outdoor air pollution results from pouring hundreds of millions of tons of gases and particulates. (tiny particles of liquid or solid matter) into the atmosphere each year. One of the most common forms of outdoor air pollution is smog. Indoor air pollution results from many of the same substances found outdoors. But indoor pollutants can present a more serious problem because they tend to build up in a small area from which they cannot easily escape. Cigarette smoke is a familiar indoor air pollutant.
Most air pollution results from combustion (burning) processes. The burning of gasoline to power motor vehicles and the burning of coal to heat buildings and help manufacture products are examples of such processes.
Weather conditions can help reduce the amount of pollutants in outdoor air.
Air pollution Most of the gases and particles that people put into the air come from combustion (burning) processes. The furnaces in factories, homes, and office buildings, the engines in automobiles, airplanes, and other motor vehicles; and the burning of trash are the chief sources of pollution from combustion. The pollutants from these sources have a wide variety of effects, as shown below.
One serious result of air pollution is its harmful effect on human health. Both gases and particulates burn people's eyes and irritate their lungs. Particulates can settle in the lungs and worsen such respiratory diseases as asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Air pollution also harms plants. Poisonous gases in the air can restrict the growth of , and eventually kill, nearly all kinds of plants.
Air pollutants may also effect climate. Both gases and particulates can cause changes in the average temperatures of an area.
Air pollutants may damage the layer of ozone ( a form of oxygen) in the earth's upper atmosphere. The ozone layer protects animals and plants from much of the sun's harmful ultraviolet light.
Water pollution Most of the pollutants that people put into water come from treated and untreated sewage, from agricultural drainage, and from industrial wastes. The pollutants reduce valuable supplies of pure, fresh water by upsetting the natural cycles that work to keep water clean. By upsetting the cycles, the pollutants harm the animals and plants that live in the water.
Water pollution reduces the amount of pure, fresh water that is available for such necessities as drinking and cleaning, and for such activities as swimming and fishing. The pollutants that affect water come mainly from industries, farms, and sewerage systems.
Soil pollution damages the thin layer of fertile soil that covers much of the earth's land is essential for growing food. Natural processes took thousands of years to form the soil that supports crops. But, through poor treatment people can destroy soil in a few years.
Plant and animal wastes, including dead organisms, accumulate in the soil. Bacteria and fungi decay these wastes, breaking them down into nitrates, phosphates, and other nutrients. The nutrients feed growing plants, and when the plants die the cycle begins again.
People use fertilizers and pesticides to grow more and better crops. Fertilizers add extra nutrients to the soil and increase the amount of a crop that can be grown on an area of land. But the use of large amounts of fertilizer may decrease the ability of bacteria to decay wastes and produce nutrients naturally.
IV Answer the following questions:
1) What kinds of environmental pollution do you know?
2) How do people cause air pollution?
3) What is the most common from of outdoor air pollution?
4) What is the meaning of smog?
5) What can help reduce the amount of pollutants in outdoor air?
6) What causes water pollution?
7) Were do most of the pollutants come from?
8) What does soil pollution damage?
9) What accumulates in the soil?
V Complete the following sentences:
1). People cause air pollution both outdoors and _________ .
2). Weather conditions can help reduce the amount of ______ in outdoor air.
3). Particulates can settle in the lungs and worsen such ______ diseases as asthma bronchitis and pneumonia.
4). The pollutants that affect water come mainly from _____ , farms and sewerage systems.
5). Pollution damages the thin layer of fertile soil that covers much of the earth's land and is essential for growing food.
VI. Find nouns and verbs which correspond to the following definitions:
Smoke, poison, fertilizer, crop, pollute.
1). agricultural plants in the fields
2). make dirty
3). chemical plant food; artificial manure
4). visible vapour particles of carbon, etc. Coming from a burning substance.
5). Substance causing death or harm it absorbed by a living thing (animal or plant).
VII. Make up the sentences with the following words and word combinations:
several kinds of environmental pollution; air pollution; pollutants; is one of the most serious problems; wants to reduce pollution, necessary to the several.