For life processes to run smoothly, conditions inside an organism need to stay relatively stable. The process of keeping the internal conditions in a balanced state is called homeostasis.
Examples of homeostasis include keeping water levels balanced, controlling body temperature, and responding to external and internal stimuli.
Organisms have complex systems of checks and mechanisms to enable them to keep their internal state the same all the time.
Read and translate the text, say what is biome.
Where Organisms Live?
Living things are adapted to exist in particular places. The climate (temperature, sunlight, and rainfall) affects the type of vegetation that grows, which in turn determines the animals that live there. An organism is also affected by the soil type, whether the place is on dry land or under water, and the presence of other organisms competing for food and mates. A huge habitat zone, such as an ocean or a desert, is called a biome. Similar biomes can exist on different continents that share the same conditions. Desert biomes, for example, exist in America, Africa, Australia, and Asia.
2. Read the text, classify the animals (reptiles, birds, etc.) and speak about the peculiarities of Britain's fauna.
ANIMAL INHABITANTS OF THE BRITISH ISLES
The animals of the British Isles resemble those of North-Western Europe, though there are fewer kinds. Some of the larger animals, the wolf, the bear and the reindeer, have become destroyed, though reindeer remained in Scotland. Foxes are spread in many districts of the country. One can see seals on different parts of the coast. Smaller animals are rats, squirrels, hares, etc.
There exist about 430 kinds of birds, many of them are song-birds. About 230 kinds are natives and the rest are regular visitors to Britain. The sparrows and starlings are numerous. Many kinds of sea-birds live round the coast and they often fly far inland looking for food. Some kinds of birds are protected by law.
Reptiles are few. There are only three types of snakes of which only one is dangerous. Snakes can't be found in Ireland.
In the British Isles there are more than 21,000 different kinds of insects, most of them small.
Britain's production of sea-fish is about 5 per cent of the world's. But river-fishing in Britain became unimportant, except salmon.
In spring and just before the winter colds begin, the rocks of the island off the west coast of Britain are absolutely covered with birds, flying from the north to the warmer lands. And local people bring food and water for them while the long-distance travelers stop there for a rest.
3. Read the text and answer the questions:
a) What was the result of the ban on ivory sales?
b) How did the population of elephants change between 1979 and 1992?
c) Why did the authorities allow the sale of ivory in 1998?
d) When are ivory sales good for elephants?
e) What are the three ways of making money from African wildlife?
Elephants use tusks for stripping trees, moving objects, fighting and display. Humans have other uses for tusks – or ivory – such as jewellery, piano keys and billiard balls.
Although ivory has been valued for centuries, large-scale killing of elephants for ivory did not begin until about 1900. By the 1970s and 1980s, poaching became a serious problem.
Between 1979 and 1992, the numbers of elephants plunged from 1.3 million to about 600,000. Elephants were in danger. Those protecting the elephants chose a simple solution: ban the sale of ivory, and the poachers will find it difficult to make a living.
The ban on ivory sales worked. Elephant populations grew fast in Southern Africa. But they also began to damage crops and chase villagers.
This created a problem for those protecting wildlife. Angry villagers were demanding that elephants should be taken away from areas near humans – even killed. One solution was to let local people have control of the way the elephants were managed. But how could you make villagers want to look after the elephants?
So the authorities began to allow the sale of ivory as a way for the villagers to raise money. This gave them an interest in managing the elephants.
It seemed to make sense. If elephants were no longer endangered in southern Africa, shouldn't African countries be allowed to sell ivory to fund this sort of conservation program?
In 1998 the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) lifted the ban on all trade in ivory. Money from the sale of African ivory is being used to help people live alongside the elephant.
John Newby of the World Wide Fund for Nature says that preservation alone is not enough. "It isn't creating the incentives needed by ordinary Africans to see elephants as a valuable resource and not just a pest," says Newby.
So far it has been the tourist industry – airlines and hotels – that has made money from African wildlife. Now that local people can sell ivory again, the elephants are at last bringing wealth to their human neighbours. By Simon Baines
In the text above find the underlined words, which are close in meaning to those below:
2. caring for
4. close to