Read the sentences, explain the use of the Gerund and translate them into Russian.
1. Dogs are very good at guiding people apart from catching and guardingthings.
2. By measuring the blood pressure of the animals and the people the scientists came to their conclusion that if you stroke a dog or a cat and talk to it, the blood pressure of the animal and the person will go down.
3. Farm life is work in the field and caringfor livestock.
4. A common mistake in feedingcats is feeding primarily a single food item such as fish, meat, liver or kidney. It results in the cat's becoming addicted to the food and refusing to eat anything else.
5. When you have skin problems in your dog, take it to the vet and allow him to determine the cause by using careful case histories and modern diagnostic measures before deciding on a course of treatment. It may be necessary to do blood tests, allergy tests or skin biopsies for achieving a complete diagnoses. Bandages or a protective collar which prevents the dog from licking the affected areas of the skin may be applied.
6. My aunt's favourite cow instead of producing milk spent all her time in kicking at anything – hens, pigs, even birds in the sky.
7. If the mammal becomes too hot, it cools itself by sleekingdown its hair, sweating, panting or moving to a cool place.
8. Rainforests clean the air by absorbing carbon dioxide and giving out oxygen. The destruction of the rainforests is bringing about changes in the climate, air pollution, flooding, drought and famine.
9. There are several ways to help improve the situation. Firstly, we should encourage recycling because it is the production of new materials which causes the most damage. Secondly, driving an environmentally-friendly car is also important. Furthermore, joining an organization which plants trees or cleans up beaches would be proof that you are really concerned about the environment. Lastly, supporting groups such as Greenpeace would help to ensure that our planet will be clean and safe for future generations.
Use the Gerund of the verbs in brackets.
1. Students began (read) this article two hours ago.
2. Nowadays scientists are working out methods for (utilize) atomic energy for general use in peaceful purposes.
3. Upon (be excited), muscles contract to produce movements, and gland cells pour forth the secretions previously synthesized within them.
4. The catabolic process by which a complex food substance is changed into a simpler form without (be) completely destroyed is known as digestion.
5. A catalyst is a substance that accelerates a chemical change without itself (become) one of the products of the reaction or otherwise (alter) the end achieved.
6. Water is an essential plant nutrient. (Apply) irrigation water in arid areas differs very little in principle from (apply) fertilizer in humid areas.