SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS
Rebecca Lake Huron
a tree an idea glass love
a house an offer iron fear
Both common and proper nouns can be NOTE: (e.g. animate a lady, Miss Brown) and (e.g. inanimate a feather, Newcastle)
PLURAL OF NOUNS
1. REGULAR FORMATION
a jacket jackets; a book books if the noun ends in a sibilant
a watch watches; a box boxes
is pronounced as: ENDING -S
[s] after consonants voiceless a desk-desks;
[z] after consonants and voiced vowels a dog dogs, a boy-boys;
[iz] after sibilants (řčď˙ůčĺ č ńâčńň˙ůčĺ çâóęč)in nouns ending in --s,-ss,-xx, -z,-sh, -ch,-tch, e.g .a bus busses,a match-matches.
2. NOUNS ENDING IN Y
if preceded by a vowel
changes into - y+S if it -i + es,
a toy toys; a day - days is preceded by a consonant
a lady ladies, a city - cities
3., e.g. = NOUNS ENDING IN TH Noun + th + s
a bath baths; a moth moths; a mouth mouths; cloth cloths
ˇ Do not confuse
clothes (îäĺćäŕ) and cloths (ňđ˙ďęč, ęóńęč ňęŕíč)
ˇ In standard English
before the ending th is pronounced as [ðz] after long vowels and diphthongs and [θs] after short vowels, e.g. s
a youth youths [ju:θ] [ju:ðz]; a smith smiths [smiθ] [smiθs]
4. NOUNS ENDING IN - O
If a noun ends in
- it is necessary to decide whether it is a foreign word, abbreviated word like o, piano or neither of these.
a) Noun + o + s = If it is a foreign word or an abbreviated word, the ending is added to s It is true for: o.
e.g. musical terms of Italian origin,
a solo solos; a soprano sopranos; a concerto-concertos; a piano - pianos
e.g. proper names,
an Eskimo Eskimos; a Philippino - Philippinos
e.g. words of Greek origin,
a photo photos; a radio - radios
a kilo (from kilogram) kilos;
a memo (from memorandum) memos;
e.g. when the final letter o is preceded by a vowel letter or sound,
a kangaroo kangaroos; a cuckoo cuckoos; a zoo zoos
b) = If it is supposed to be of British origin, the ending Noun + o + es es is added, e.g.
a potato - potatoes; a cargo cargoes;
an echo- echoes; a hero- heroes;
a Negro Negroes; a tomato- tomatoes;
a torpedo torpedoes; a motto mottoes;
a veto vetoes
c)The letter e is optional in the following words:
commandoes; grottoes; haloes; mosquitoes; tornadoes; volcanoes.
5. NOUNS ENDING IN F
Some nouns change
into f ves , while others dont. To be on the safe side just remember 13 nouns that have these changes and dont bother about the rest treat them as regular nouns. The fact that some of these words rhyme may help you.
a wife wives a life lives a knife knives
a shelf shelves an elf elves a self selves
a leaf leaves a thief thieves a sheaf sheaves
a loaf loaves a wolf wolves a half halves a calf calves
These are old plural forms that have survived in Modern English. They should be learnt by heart!
a man men a woman women a child children
a tooth teeth a foot feet a goose geese an ox oxen a mouse mice a louse lice
2016-01-03; view: 201