1 Employment discrimination can be based on age, gender and race - are there other categories you can think of?
2 Are women and men employed as equals in your country, in terms of pay and conditions?
A Understanding main points
Read the text on the opposite page about an important case about discrimination against women in the workplace and answer these questions.
1 What is the case about?
2 Where is the case being heard?
3 Who brought the appeal - the ADA or Ms Kolstad?
4 What types of discrimination are mentioned in the text?
5 Why did Ms Kolstad sue the ADA?
6 Was there any dispute about the facts of the discrimination against Ms Kolstad?
7 What was the lower Appeals Court's decision?
8 Which organisation is mentioned that supports the ADA?
9 If the Supreme Court decides in favour of Ms Kolstad, how much may she receive in damages?
¬ Understanding expressions
Choose the best explanation for each of these words or phrases from the text.
1 knock-on effect (line 16)
a) blow to the body
b) wider consequences /
c) entry requirement
2 malice (line 32)
b) with bad or cruel intention
3 reckless indifference (line 32)
a) driving without care
b) heartless and cruel
c) not caring about the consequences
4 upholds (line 47)
b) agrees with and supports
c) sets a standard
5 brief (line 71)
a) short letter
b) legal document
c) kind of case
6 caps (line 85)
a) sets an upper limit
c) is the head
Court to hear key case on discrimination
By Patti Waldmeir in Washington
The US Supreme Court today hears a case which could have a big impact on the size of damages paid by US employers in employment discrimination lawsuits. The court agreed to hear the case,
Carole Kolstad vs the American Dental Association (ADA), to clarify what kind of employer conduct will give rise to punitive damage - damages awarded to punish and deter an offender - in lawsuits involving sex discrimination. However, law employment experts said that the suitwas also likely to have a knock-on effect on race, age and other employment discrimination suits brought under Title VII of the 1991 Civil Rights Act.
The case involves a female lawyer employed as a lobbyist for the ADA, a professional trade association. A jury found that Ms Kolstad was denied promotion because of intentional sex discrimination. The issue before the court is not whether this is so, but whether such discrimination must be 'egregious' before punitive damages are awarded.
Title VII permits such damages where there was 'malice or ... reckless indifference to the federally protected rights of an individual'. .But in Ms Kolstadís case an Appeals Court found that the ADA's conduct was neither 'egregious' nor 'truly outrageous' enough to merit punitive damages.
At the moment there is confusion over the standard of conduct necessary to attract punitive damages, with the various circuit courts applying differing standards to define '„ŚŮkless indifference'. If the Supreme Court upholds the Appeals Court's decision in Kolstad - that the conduct did not meet this standard of 'egregious' - this would set a new standard nationwide that could limit the size of both jury awards and pre-trial settlements.
Conversely, if Ms Kolstad wins, jury awards and settlements could shoot lip. Her lawyers argue in their brief that 'egregious' is too high a standard, and that employees need only show that their employers knew or should have known their conduct was probably unlawful in order to have claims for punitive damages put before a jury.
'If adopted; this standard would subject employers to punitive damages virtually every time an employee engages in intentional discrimination against another, the US Chamber of 'Commerce argues in a brief filed to support the ADA. Our concern is that punitive damages would become the norm, not the exception, whereas the law clearly intends them to be the exception,' says. Stephen Bokat of the National Chamber Litigation Center, which has also backed the ADA.
According to Jury Verdict Research, which tracks jury awards, 40% of verdicts in gender discrimination cases in the last six years have included punitive damages. The law caps damages at $50,000-$300,000 per plaintiff, depending on the size of the employer.
A lower court jury awarded Ms Kolstad back pay after a male employee in the same office was, according to her lawyer's brief, 'preselected' for a promotion for which he was less qualified than she was.
World business newspaper.
Discrimination is unfair treatment or denial of normal privileges to people because of their race, age, sex, nationality or religion. In this case, the US appeal judges were asked to decide if the unfair treatment had been so bad as to warrant an extremely stiff penalty (punitive damages), which should deter others from similar behaviour. Note that each US state administers its own justice system but the system of appeal is from trial court to Appeals Court and then the Supreme Court, which is the highest appeal court in the US.