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Upstairs downstairs

Indoor(s) outdoor(s)

Q. Are we upstairs or downstairs ?

A.We're upstairs.

 



Q. What do we call a meal we eat outdoors ?

A.We call a meal we eat outdoors a picnic.

 



Q. What do we call a meal we cook outdoors ?

A. We call a meal we eat outdoors a barbecue.

 



Q. What kind of rooms are usually found upstairs in a house ?

A.Bedrooms are usually found upstairs in a house.

 



Q. Do you know a good place for a picnic near here ?

A.No, I don't know a good place for a picnic near here.

 



v. to slip*adj. slipperyv. to sliden. slide

Q. What is the difference between slip and slide ?

A.The difference between slip and slide is that slip is by accident and slide is on purpose.

 



Q. Have you ever slipped over in the street ?

A.No, I've never slipped over in the street.

 



Q. What kind of animals feel slippery ?

A.Frogs feel slippery.

 



Q. When is the ground slippery ?

A.The ground is slippery when it's very icy.

 



Q. What kind of animals slide along the ground ?

A.Snakes slide along the ground.

 



Q. Where would you find a children’s slide ?

A.You would find a children’s slide in the playground.

 



Unit 8

n. positionv. to position

A positionis the place where someone or something is.

If you positionsomething, you put it in a particular place.

 



Q. Why might someone be in a kneeling position ?

A.Someone might be in a kneeling position if they were praying.

 



Q. If you won a silver medal in a race, what position would you have finished in ?

A.If you won a silver medal in a race, you would've finished in the second position.

 



Q. In what sport do you position the ball carefully before hitting it with a club ?

A.You position the ball carefully before hitting it with a club in golf.

 



Q. When you have a dinner party, do you position your guests carefully ?

A.Yes, when I have a dinner party, I position my guests carefully.

 



n. level

We use the word levelto describe the measurement of something.

eg. You are studying intermediate levelEnglish.

The police can check the levelof alcohol in your blood.

 



Q. What level of English are you studying ?

A.I'm studying intermediate level English.

 



Q. Has your level of English improved since you started studying at this school ?

A.Yes,my level of English has improved since I started studying at this school.

 



Q. Are there any cities in your country that have dangerous levels of air pollution ?

A. Yes, Rome has dangerous levels of air pollution.

 



adj. level

As an adjective, levelmeans at the same height or position.

 



Q. Who wins if the scores are level at the end of a football match ?

A.Noone wins if the scores are level at the end of a football match.

 



Q. Are pavements usually level with the road ?

A. No, pavements aren't usually level with the road.

 



Q. What do these expressions mean ?

a. sea level

A.Sea level means the average level of the sea.

b. eye-level

A.Eye-level means the level of the eyes.

c. level-headed

A.Level-headed means sensible or calm.

by(2)

 



When we say that an action happened bya particular time, it will happen no later

than that time.

eg. If you send the letter today, it will get there byMonday. (It might get there

before Monday, but not later.)

Bythe age of ten, Mozart was a famous musician. (When he was ten he was

already famous.)

 



Q. Are you usually in bed by midnight ?

A.Yes, I'm usually in bed by midnight.

 



Q. Are you usually awake by 8 o’clock ?

A.Yes, I'm usually awake by 8 o'clock.

 



Q. Have most people stopped growing by the age of twenty ?

A.Yes, most people have stopped growing by the age of twenty.

 



Q. Can you think of anyone who was already rich by the age of twenty ?

A.Yes, Michael Jackson was already rich by the age of twenty.

 



by the time + clause

 



eg. By the timeyou finish your homework, dinner will be ready.

(Your dinner will be ready at about the same time you finish your homework.)

We were late so by the timewe got to the cinema, the film had already started.

 



Q. Will it be dark by the time you get home ?

A.Yes, it'll be dark by the time I get home.

 



Q. Are most people married by the time they are forty ?

A.Yes, most people are married by the time they are forty.

 



Unit 8

Q. Have most babies learnt to talk by the time they are two ?

A.Yes, most babies have learnt to talk by the time they are two.

 



Q. Do you think that by the time they retire, most people are too old to enjoy their freedom ?

A.Yes, I think that by the time they retire, most people are too old to enjoy their freedom.

 



The future perfect

construction : subject + will + have + past participle

 



We use the the future perfectto say an action will finish or happen before a particular time in the future.

 



We normally use byor by the timewith this tense.

 



eg. If you don’t hurry up the film will have startedby the time we get to the cinema.

 



I haven’t finished that letter yet but I will have postedit by this evening so they will have receivedit by this time next week.

 



Q. Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are :

a. 18

b. 30

c. 70.

 



Q. Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are 18.

A.Most people will have tried alcohol by the time they are 18.

 



Q. Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are 30.

A.Most people will have had a job by the time they are 30.

 



Q. Give me an example of something most people will have done by the time they are 70.

A.Most people will have retired by the time they are 70.

 



Q. Will we have finished this book by the end of the week ?

A.No, we won't have finished this book by the end of the week.

 



Q. What about by the end of next month ?

A.Yes, I think we will have finished this book by the end of next month.

 



Q. Will you have completed your course by the end of the year ?

A.I will have completed my course by the end of the year.

 



exercise

Fill in the gaps using the future perfect.

1. We are planning a big party in July because Paul will have finished (to finish)

his exams by then.

2. The company is doing very well. We will have made(to make) a large profit

by the end of the year.

3. I’m sending the information tonight, so they will have received (to receive) it by

early next week.

4. If we don’t leave now, the film will have started (to start) by the time we get there.

 



phr v. to be made out ofn. ironn. brick

n. concreten. steel

Q. What kind of things are made out of:

a. bricks ?

b. concrete ?

c. steel ?

 



Q. What kind of things are made out of bricks ?

A.Houses are made out of bricks.

 



Q. What kind of things are made out of concrete ?

A.Roads are made out of concrete.

 



Q. What kind of things are made out of steel ?

A.Bridges are made out of steel.

 



Q. Do you find that most concrete buildings are ugly ?

A. I find that most concrete buildings are ugly.

 



Q. What are traditional houses in your country made out of ?

A.Traditional houses in my country are made out of bricks.

 



Q. What is this building made out of ?

A.This building is made out of bricks.

 



n. fencen. gaten. lockn. bar

Q. How many locks do you have on your front door ?

A.I have two locks on my front door.

 



Q. What is the difference between a wall and a fence ?

A.The difference between a wall and a fence is that a wall is usually made of bricks or concrete and a fence is usually made of wood or metal.

 



Unit 8

Q. What kind of buildings are protected by a high fence ?

A.Prisons are usually protected by a high fence.

 



Q. What is the difference between a door and a gate ?

A.The difference between a door and a gate is that a door is usually in a wall and a gate is usually in a fence.

 



Q. What kind of buildings have bars across their windows ?

A.Prisons have bars across their windows.

 



 



v. to chasephr v. to run awayv. to jump

Q. What kind of animals chase cats ?

A.Dogs chase cats.

 



Q. What kind of animals are chased by cats ?

A.Mice are chased by cats.

 



Q. Would you run away from :

a. a cat ?

b. a tiger ?

 



Q. Would you run away from a cat ?

A.No, I wouldn't run away from a cat.

 



Q. Would you run away from a tiger ?

A.Yes, I would run away from a tiger.

 



Q. In which sports is the ability to jump an advantage ?

A.The ability to jump is an advantage in basketball.

 



Q. In what kind of films are there often car chases ?

A.There are often car chases in action films.

 



Q. If I said that a loud noise made me jump, what would I mean ?

A.If you said that a loud noise made you jump, you would mean it frightened you.

 



v. to blockn. blockn. hole

If you blocka holeup, you put something in it to close it.

eg. They blockedup the hole in the wall with concrete.

 



Q. In which sport do you hit a ball into a hole in the ground ?

A.You hit a ball into a hole in the ground in golf.

 



Q. What kind of food has holes in it ?

A.Ring doughnuts and cheese have holes in them.

 



Q. What can cause:

a. a blocked up sink ?

b. a blocked up nose ?

 



Q. What can cause a blocked up sink ?

A.Hair and pieces of food can cause a blocked up sink.

 



Q. What can cause a blocked up nose ?

A.The flu can cause a blocked up nose.

 



Q. Why would someone block out a bad experience or memory ?

A.Someone would want to block out a bad experience or memory because they don't want to remember it.

 



Q. What are the following:

a. an office block ?

A.An office block is a building full of offices.

b. a block of flats ?

A.A block of flats is a building full of flats.

c. a mental block ?

A.A mental block is when you can't remember something for a short time.

 




Unit 9

Unit 9

 

n. agreementn. contract

An agreementis a decision made between two people, companies or countries.

A contractis a written agreementwhich has to be signed.

 



Q. Has your country made any agreements with other countries ?

A.No, my country hasn't made any agreements with other countries.

 



Q. Have you ever made an agreement that you regretted afterwards?

A.No, I've never made an agreement that I regretted afterwards.

 



Q. Do people usually sign a contract when they start a new job ?

A.Yes, people usually sign a contract when they start a new job.

 



Q. Do you always read a contract carefully before you sign it ?

A.Yes, I always read a contract carefully before I sign it.

 



v. to deal inn. dealer

dealt

dealt

If you deal insomething, you buy and sell it.

Some people dealdrugs or arms illegally.

 



Q. Which famous computer company deals in software ?

A.Microsoft deals in software.

 



Q. What would be a good thing to deal in if you wanted to make money fast ?

A.If you wanted to make money fast, stocks and shares would be a good thing to deal in.

 



Q. Do you think drug dealing is a serious crime ?

A.Yes, I think drug dealing is a serious crime.

 



Q. What is suitable punishment for drug dealers ?

A.I think imprisonment is a suitable punishment for drug dealers.

 



Q. What do people deal in at a stock exchange ?

A.People deal in stocks and shares at a stock exchange.

 



n. dealv. to make a deal

v. to do a deal

Q. Do you think all business deals are honest ?

A.No, I don't think all business deals are honest.

 



Q. What do business people sign after doing a deal ?

A.Business people sign a contract after doing a deal.

 



Q. If you paid £10,000 for an old computer, would it be a good deal or a bad deal ?

A.If you paid £10,000 for an old computer, it would be a bad deal.

 



phr v. to deal with

If a situation needs attention and you give it your attention, you deal withit.

eg. A lawyer deals withlegal problems.

 



Q. Who would deal with your legal problems ?

A.A lawyer would deal with yourlegal problems.

 



Q. Would you enjoy a job where you had to deal with the public all day ?

A.No, I wouldn't enjoy a job where I had to deal with the public all day.

 



Q. How would you deal with:

a. a baby that wouldn’t stop crying ?

A.I would deal with a baby that wouldn’t stop crying by singing to it.

b. a friend who was depressed ?

A.I would deal with a friend who was depressed by buying them a drink.

c. a person who suddenly felt ill ?

A.I would deal with a person who suddenly felt ill by phoning for an ambulance.

 



Unit 9

Q. Are you good at dealing with problems when you are in a bad mood ?

A.No, I'm not good at dealing with problems when I'm in a bad mood.

 



Q. Is it better to deal with bad experiences instead of blocking them out ?

A.Yes, it's better to deal with bad experiences instead of blocking them out.

 



n. speechn. lecture

Q. Have you ever made a speech ?

A.Yes, I have made a speech.

 



Q. What was it about ?

A.American history.

 



Q. How many people were listening ?

A.About 50 people were listening.

 



Q. Who traditionally makes a wedding speech in your country ?

A.The best man and the father of the bride traditionally make a wedding speech in my country.

 



Q. Where would you go to hear a lecture ?

A.I would go to university to hear a lecture.

 



Q. Have you ever fallen asleep during a boring lecture ?

A.Yes, I have fallen asleep during a boring lecture.

 



n. subject

The subjectof a conversation or an article is the thing we are talking or writing about.

 



Q. What kind of subjects are popular in women’s magazines ?

A.Fashion and relationships are popular in women’s magazines.

 



Q. Have you ever written an article ?

A.Yes, I've written an article.

 



Q. On what subject ?

A.On the problem of homeless people in London.

 



Q. Do you prefer amusing articles or ones that deal with serious subjects ?

A.I prefer amusing articles.

 



Q. Why might someone change the subject of a conversation ?

A.Someone might change the subject of a conversation because they are very bored.

 



v. to discussn. discussion

n. debate

A discussionis talking or writing about a particular subject.

A debateis like a formal argument about a particular subject, often ending in a vote or a decision.

 



Q. What kind of subjects are discussed in teenage magazines ?

A.Fashion and relationships are discussed in teenage magazines.

 



Q. Who do you discuss your most private problems with ?

A.I discuss my most private problems with my best friend.

 



Q. Do they have political discussions on television ?

A.Yes, they have political discussions on television.

 



Q. Did you ever have debates at school ?

A.Yes, we often had debates at school.

 



Q. Do you think political debates are boring ?

A.No, I don't think political debates are boring.

 



adj. enthusiasticn. enthusiasm

If someone is enthusiasticabout something, they show that they find it very interesting and enjoyable.

 



Q. Do you think that students learn faster if they have enthusiasm for the subject ?

A.Yes, I think that students learn faster if they have enthusiasm for the subject.

 



Q. Are you as enthusiastic now as you used to be about your birthday ?

A.No, I'm not as enthusiastic now as I used to be about my birthday.

 



Q. What do we call someone who follows a particular team or sport with enthusiasm ?

A.We call someone who follows a particular team or sport with enthusiasm a fan.

 



Unit 9

adj. keenexpr. to be keen on something

expr. to be keen to do something

If you are keen onsomething, you really enjoy doing it.

If you are keen to dosomething, you want to do it as quickly as possible.

 



Q. What kind of books are you keen on reading ?

A.I'm keen on reading biographies.

 



Q. What kind of television programmes are children keen on ?

A.Childen are keen on cartoons.

 



Q. What places in your country are tourists usually keen to visit ?

A.Tourists are usually keen to visit the Eiffel Tower.

 



Q. Which country are you most keen to visit ?

A.I'm most keen to visit Australia.

 



Q. Are you keen to finish this book ?

A.Yes, I'm keen to finish this book.

 



n. addictionn. addictadj. addicted(to)

 



eg. If you are addictedto smoking you can’t give it up even if you really try.

 



Q. Which drugs and medicines can people become addicted to ?

A.People can become addicted to alcohol and nicotine.

 



Q. What is an alcoholic addicted to ?

A.An alcoholic is addicted to alcohol.

 



Q. Do you think drug addiction causes serious social problems ?

A.Yes, I think drug addiction causes serious social problems.

 



Q. If you found out that someone you knew was a drug addict, would you try to help them ?

A. Yes, if I found out that someone I knew was a drug addict, I would try to help them.

 



If someone is very enthusiastic and keen on something we can say they are addicted.

 



Q. Do you know anyone who is addicted to :

a. chocolate

A.Yes, my young sister is addicted to chocolate.

b. television

A.Yes, my brother is addicted to television.

c. computer games

A.Yes, I'm addicted to computer games.

 



n. obsessionadj. obsessed(with)

 



If you are obsessedwith something, you can’t stop thinking about it.

 



Q. What kind of things are teenagers obsessed with ?

A.Teenagers obsessed with relationships and fashion.

 



Q. What idea is a very jealous person obsessed with in a relationship?

A.A very jealous person is obsessed with an idea that their girlfriend or boyfriend is having an affair.

 



Q. Do you know anyone who is obsessed with money ?

A.No, I don't know anyone who is obsessed with money.

 



Q. What do we call someone who is obsessed with their appearance?

A.We call someone who is obsessed with their appearance vain.

 



v. to wish(2)

 



Remember, we use wish + subject + past tense to express a regret about a present situation.

 



eg. I wish I hadenough time to go on holiday.

I will miss you when I move to America. I wish you werecoming with me.

To talk about situations in the pastthat you regret, we use :

wish + had + past participle

eg. I wish I hadn’t boughtthis watch, it is always stopping.

I wish I had studiedFrench instead of German at school.

 



Q. What does someone who has failed an exam wish ?

A.Someone who has failed an exam wishes that they had studied harder.

 



Q. Which team do you wish had won the last world cup ?

A.I wish Brazil had won the last world cup.

 



Unit 9

Q. Is there anyone you wish you had never met ?

A.No, there isn't anyone I wish I had never met.

 



Q. Is there anything you wish you had done when you were younger?

A.Yes, I wish I had studied harder at school when I was younger.

 



wish + subject + would

 



We use this construction when we want something to change but we know it probably won’t soon.

eg. I wish you wouldclean the bath after you use it.

I wish it wouldstop raining.

 



Q. Do you wish your teachers would speak more slowly ?

A.Yes, I wish my teachers would speak more slowly.

 



Q. Do you wish your friends would call you more often ?

A.Yes, I wish my friends would call me more often.

 



Q. Tell us about someone’s annoying habit using the construction ‘wish + would’.

A.I wish my father would stop smoking.

 



Q. What is the difference between these two sentences :

a. I hope my boss will give me a pay rise.

b. I wish my boss would give me a pay rise.

A.'I hope my boss will give me a pay rise' means that there is a chance that he will but 'I wish my boss would give me a pay rise' means it probably won't happen.

 



adj. awareto be aware ofsomething

 



to be aware that+ clause

If you are awareof something, you know that it is happening.

eg. He was aware thatdriving without a seat belt was illegal.

The government is aware ofthe problem of unemployment.

 



Q. Are you aware of the rules of this school ?

A.Yes, I'm aware of the rules of this school.

 



Q. Are young people aware of your country’s traditions ?

A.Yes, young people are aware of my country’s traditions.

 



Q. Why do people smoke even though they are aware of the dangers ?

A.People smoke even though they are aware of the dangers because they are addicted.

 



Q. Do you think that English people are aware of how difficult English is for foreigners ?

A.No, I don't think English people are aware of how difficult English is for foreigners.

 



Q. Should a computer screen be positioned above the level of your eyes ?

A.No, a computer screen should be positioned at eye-level.

 



Q. What kind of buildings have large gates outside ?

A.Famous people's houses have large gates outside.

 



Q. What kind of animals run away when people go near them ?

A.Foxes and rabbits run away when people go near them.

 



Q. What kind of people have to get used to making regular speeches ?

A.Politicians have to get used to making regular speeches.

 



 



v. to representn. ambassador

eg. An ambassador representshis/her country abroad.

Our company was representedby Andrew Forbes at the meeting.

NB. to representis often used in the passive voice.

 



Q. Who represents your country abroad ?

A.An ambassador represents my country abroad.

 



Q. Have you ever represented your school or university in a competition ?

A.Yes, I represented my school at cricket.

 



Q. Who would represent your country at a very high-level international meeting ?

A. The President would represent my country at a very high-level international meeting.

 



Unit 9

n. symbol n. sign

A symbolis a simple picture which represents a word, an idea, an organization or a religion.

 



eg. The Olympic symbolis five colored circles linked together.

A signcan be found in the street or on a wall in a building. It gives us information.

 



eg. A no-smoking signis usually a cigarette in a red circle with a line through it.

 



A signcan also be anything that shows us something is going to happen.

 



eg. Dark clouds are usually a signof rain.

New leaves on trees is usually the first signof spring.

 



Q. Can you describe the road sign which tells you that you must stop at a main road ?

A.Yes, it's a red hexagon with STOP written in white letters.

 



 



Q. What are the first signs of :

a. flu ?

A.The first signs of flu are a sore throat and a blocked nose.

b. spring ?

A.The first signs of spring are blossom on the trees and the weather getting warmer.

c. someone getting angry ?

A.The first signs of someone getting angry are a read face and a loud voice.

 



Q. What is the symbol of:

a. the Christian religion ?

A.A cross is the symbol of the Christian religion.

b. peace ?

A.A dove is the symbol of peace.

c. love ?

A.A heart is the symbol of love.

 



Q. What is the chemical symbol for water ?

A.The chemical symbol for water H2 O.

 



Q. What kind of people communicate using sign language ?

A.Deaf people communicate using sign language.

 



n. trademarkn. brand name

A trademarkis a symbol or words that represent a company.

A brand nameis a particular company name such as Levis, Ford or Coca-Cola.

 



Q. Which companies have famous trademarks ?

A.MacDonald's and Mercedes Benz have famous trademarks.

 



Q. Do you prefer any particular brand name when buying:

a. clothes

A.Yes, I prefer Levis when buying clothes.

b. perfume

A.Yes, I prefer Calvin Klein when buying perfume.

c. beer

A.Yes, I prefer Budweiser when buying beer.

 



Q. Do you think it is worth paying more for famous brand names ?

A.Yes, I think it's worth paying more for famous brand names.

 



Q. Does this school have a trade mark ?

A.Yes, this school has a trade mark. It's a big letter A.

 



adv. hardly

Hardlyis a negative adverb. We use it to mean almost notor almost nothing.

eg. The film was so boring that I hardlyremember anything. (almost nothing)

We hardlyever eat in restaurants. (almost never)

Hardlyanyone bought a ticket for the party. (almost no one)

NB. Hardlyis not the adverb of the adjective hard.

compare: He works hard. (He works a lot.)

He hardlyworks. (He almost never works.)

 



Q. Do some people try to lose weight by hardly eating anything ?

A.Yes, some people try to lose weight by hardly eating anything.

 



Q. Is that the best way ?

A.No, it isn't the best way.

 



Q. Have you got any clothes you hardly ever wear ?

A.No, I haven't got any clothes that I hardly ever wear.

 



Q. Have you got any CD’s you hardly ever play ?

A.Yes, I hardly ever play my Celine Dion CD.

 



Q. If you went to a party and there was hardly anyone there, would you stay ?

A.No, if I went to a party and there was hardly anyone there, I wouldn't stay.

 



Unit 9

Q. Would you lend money to someone you hardly knew ?

A.No, I wouldn't lend money to someone I hardly knew.

 



Q. Give me an example of a place where it hardly ever rains.

A.It hardly ever rains in Africa.

 



adj. absoluteadj. total

adv. absolutelyadv. totally

These words are synonyms of complete and completely.

 



Q. Do you know anyone whose kitchen is an absolute mess ?

A.Yes, my best friend's kitchen is an absolute mess.

 



Q. Do you think that it is absolutely necessary to know how to use a computer in an office job ?

A.Yes, I think it's absolutely necessary to know how to use a computer in an office job.

 



Q. If a total stranger smiled at you on a bus, would you smile back ?

A.Yes, if a total stranger smiled at me on a bus, I would smile back.

 



Q. Have you ever promised to do something and then totally forgotten about it ?

A.No, I've never promised to do something and then totally forgotten about it.

 




Date: 2016-01-03; view: 212


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