b) positive aspects of crisis. Remember the words of John F. Kennedy (1917-1963), 35th US President:
“When written in Chinese, the word crisis is compounded of two characters – one represents danger, and the other represents opportunity.”
c) never changing psychology of consumers who want to have as much as possible for as little as possible
d) ads which create desire for more and more material possessions, and negative social aspects of extensive advertising outnumbering the positive ones
e) Government patronage over entrepreneurship which is the quickest way to ruin the concept of innovation because of inevitable excessive red tape.
 Acquisitive – trying to get things , especially because you want them, rather than because you need them; acquisition – buying sth or sth bought; the process of learning skills or getting knowledge: theories of language acquisition.
 Sweetener – money/grants or tax benefits to encourage opening a factory or business.
 Cost-cutting exercise – effort to reduce costs.
 Relocate; switch productions – move the centre of manufacture to a different place, often where labour is cheaper.
 Be on piecework - they are only paid for the amount they produce.
 Sweatshop – factories where people work very long hours for low wages.
 Keep a stiff upper lip – not to show your feelings even if you are terribly upset.
 Public-private partnership – partly state-owned, partly owned by private industries or businesses.
 Pernicious – very dangerous or harmful , especially to someone’s moral health.
 Father figure – an older man who you trust and respect.
 Based on the article “Risky business” by Stelios Haji-Ioannou, The World in 2005; Bill Mascull, Business Vocabulary in Use: Innovation, Professional English, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
 Philip Kotler. Marketing Management. Prentice Hall, 2000, Chapter 2.
 Based on “Spending Is a Patriotic Duty” by Robert B. Reich, the Moscow Times, September 26, 2001; “Canada's Palace of Kitsch Convenience” by Dave Hill, the Independent on Sunday; “Shopping During Wartime” by Joel Stein, Time, October 29, 2001; “Are Middle-of-the-night Shoppers Mad” by Ann Treneman, the Independent, March 6, 1999; “In Search of a Shopping Identity” by Michael Evamy, the Independent, September 28, 1999.
 Based on the article by James Erlichman, The Guardian
 Clear explanation of a company’s activity to which the public has easy access.
 These evaluate the effect of a firm’s behaviour in relation to employees and to society as whole.
 Today it is considered to be as important as financial reporting. It provides important information for all of a company’s stakeholders, to all members of the society affected by their activity.
 Based on America’s Hamburger Helper by EDWIN M. REINGOLD LOS ANGELES, Choice Burgers by Helen Lowery, The Observer; the Weariness of the Brand by Oleg Leonov and Peter Kiryan, The Expert, ¹17, 2002.
 The articles in this section reflect the position of their writers and do not necessarily coincide with the stance of the author of this book.