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The present continuous tense

The present simple tense

 

Why is English important?
 

 

 
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The present simple tense

 

 
 
We use the present simple tense to refer to repeated actions, habits and facts.
Formation
He - She - It + verb + "s" or "es"

 

Examples
Sarah usually goes to school on foot.
The earth is round.
I get up at 6.30 every day.
 
Examples
He always washes his car in the garage.
She often helps her mother in the kitchen.
   

 

 
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The present continuous tense

 

 
 
We use the present continuous tense to refer to actions that are happening now.
Examples
Hala is cleaning her room now.
Samar is writing a letter at the moment.
 
We use the present continuous tense to refer to actions that are planned for the future.
Examples
I'm taking a test next week.
Salwa is flying to Hamburg tomorrow.
 
We don't use the present continuous tense with verbs like: see - hear - taste - smell - know...
   

 

   
 
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Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets

 

 
I always visit my grandma at weekends. (Soha)
 

 

Soha always visits her grandma at weekends.
He rides his bike. (Look)
 

 

Look!He is riding his bike.
Yesterday they bought the papers. (Every day )
 

 

Every daythey buy the papers.
He eats a cheese sandwich at break time. (not)
 

 

He does not buy any sandwiches at break times.
 

 

 
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Choose the correct words

 

 
Ali giving is giving give gave a party next week.
Ali is givinga party next week.
Nilly like likes liking is liking drinking her tea with a lot of sugar.
Nilly likes drinking her tea with a lot of sugar.
Sharks smells smelt smell are smelling blood and swim towards it.
Sharks smellblood and swim towards it.
Mechanics repairs repair are repairing repaired cars. It is their job.
Mechanics repaircars. It is their job.
The earth go is going goes went around the sun once a year.
The earth goesaround the sun once a year.
 

 



 

 

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Stories of courage
 

 

 
 
The past simple tense

 

 
 
We use the past simple tense to refer to actions which started and finished in the past.
 
Examples
Last holiday, Hala travelled to Alex and swam in the sea.
Long ago, people fetched water from wells.
 
 
Regular past
Formation
verb + "ed" or "d"

 

 
Examples
like liked
arrive arrived
visit visited

 

 
 
Irregular past
 
There are three types:
1- no change: put put put
2- one change: make made made
3- two changes: go went gone

 

   

 

 
   
The past continuous tense

 

 
 
We use the past continuous tense to refer to actions that were going on in the past.
Example
What were you doing at 10 last night?
I was watching a film on TV.
 
We use the past continuous tense to refer to actions in the past which were interrupted by another action.
Example
Tiffany was sleeping when the house caught fire.
 
   

 

 
   
Countable and Uncountable nouns

 

 
Countable nouns
Countable nouns have singular and plural forms. We use "a" or "an" before singular nouns.
 
Example
I have a banana and an apple.
 
We use "some" before plural nouns in positive sentences.
 
Example
The government has carried out some projects.
 
We use "any" before plural nouns in negative sentences and in questions.
 
Examples
I don't have any lessons today.
Have you drawn any pictures?
 
 
 
Countable nouns
Uncountable nouns are nouns that have no plural. We use "some" before uncountable nouns in positive sentences.
 
Example
I have some information about The Toshka Valley Project.
 
We use "any" before uncountable nouns in negative sentences and questions.
 
Examples
There wasn't any food left in the fridge.
Do you have any money with you?
 
 
Notice: "Some" is used in offers and polite requests:
Examples
Would you like some tea?
Could I have some more sugar, please?
 
   

 

 
   
Conjunctions

 

 
 
"And", "but" and "so" are used in compound sentences.  
And
And = more of the same / similar ideas.
 
Example
He entered the room and switched on the lights.
 
But
But = something different.
 
Example
He came late, but he was not punished.
 
So
So = as a result.
 
Example
I felt tired, so I went home.
 
   

 

   
 
   
Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets

 

 
She went to school. She saw an old friend. (While)
 

 

While she was going to school, She saw an old friend.
She always comes on time. (Yesterday)
 

 

Yesterday she came on time
He saved some money because he wanted to buy a new mobile. (so)
 

 

He wanted to buy a new mobile so he saved some money.
He has some work to do. (not)
 

 

He does not have any work to do.
 

 



 
   
Choose the correct words

 

 
While the boy his bike, he fell under a bus.
While the boy was riding his bike, he fell under a bus.
I in the park when I heard a scream.
I was walking in the park when I heard a scream.
He arrived on time he found no one was waiting for him.
He arrived on time but he found no one was waiting for him.
Were you watching TV when I you?
Were you watching TV when I phoned you?
You cannot put go out a petrol fire with water.
You cannot put out a petrol fire with water.
 

 



 

 

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Tell me your news
 
         

 

 
   
The present perfect tense

 

 
 
Formation
has/have + p.p

 

 
We use the present perfect tense to refer to:
a) Actions in a period of time up to the present:
Example
I've learned a lot at this school.
 
b) Actions which began in the past and continue in the present:
Example
We have been at school since September.
 
c) Past actions which have an effect on the present:
Example
My uncle has changed his job.
 
 
   

 

 
   
The present perfect tense with "since / for"

 

 
 
We use "since" to say when an action began.
 
Since + A point in time Since + A past time
Examples
She has phoned her friend twice since 9 o'clock.
I haven't seen you since 1999.
 
 
We use "for" to say how long something has continued.
 
For + a period of time
Example
I haven't seen you for two years.
 
 
   

 

 
   
The present perfect with: "ever / never / yet / just":

 

 
 
 
Ever
Ever (questions)

 

 
Example
Have you ever been to Aswan?
 
Never
Never (negative sentences)

 

 
Example
I have never been to Luxor.
 
Yet
We use "yet" at the end of (negative sentences / questions)
 
Example
Has she come yet?
No, she hasn't come yet.
 
Just
We use "just" to show that something happened a short time ago.
 
Example
I've just written a letter to my pen friend.
 
 
   

 

 
   
Purpose phrase and purpose clause: Purpose phrase

 

 
 
We use "to" or "in order to" before to show the purpose of doing something..
 
Example
He goes to the club to play football.
He plays football in order to be healthy.
 
 
   

 

 
   
Purpose phrase and purpose clause: Changing a purpose phrase into a clause

 

 
 
 
Example
He went to France to learn French. (purpose phrase)
He went to France so that he could learn French. (purpose clause)
 
He gets up early to catch the bus. (purpose phrase)
He gets up early so that he can catch the bus. (purpose clause)
 
 
   

 

 
   
Using "because", "so" in sentences

 

 
 
 
Example
He left the office because he finished his work.
He finished his work, so he left the office.
 
 
 
   

 

 
   
Using "although", "however", "but" in sentences

 

 
 
 
Example
Although he has a lot of experience, he can't find a good job.
He has a lot of experience. However, he can't find a good job.
He has a lot of experience, but he can't get a good job.
 
 
   

 

 
   
Word Formation: Prefixes

 

 
 
A prefix is a letter or a group of letters added to the beginning of a word to change its meaning. Some prefixes are like: dis - ir - im - un - in:
 
Examples
Dis:    
agree disagree
appear disappear
honest dishonest
pleased displeased

 

 
Examples
Un:    
safe unsafe
kind unkind
happy unhappy
fit unfit

 

 
Examples
im:    
possible impossible
patient impatient
polite impolite
proper improper

 

 
Examples
ir:    
regular irregular
resistable irresistable

 

 
Examples
in:    
correct incorrect
active inactive

 

 
   

 

   
 
   
Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets

 

 
She has lived in Alex since 1995. (for)
 

 

She has lived in Alex for 9 years.
She arrived a short time ago. (just)
 

 

She has just arrived.
Why don't we go to the cinema? (Let's)
 

 

Let's go to the cinema.
She has been in the club for two hours. (3 o'clock)
 

 

She has been in the club since 3 o'clock.
 

 



 
   
Choose the correct words

 

 
Has Dina off her bike?
1- Has Dina fallen off her bike?
Nahla has learned to use the computer.
Nahla has just learned to use the computer.
She has worked in that office last April.
She has worked in that office since last April.
They travelled to England two months
They travelled to England two months ago.
Has Jihan on holiday? yes, she has.
Has Jihan been on holiday? yes, she has.
 

 



 

 

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Development in modern Egypt
 

 

 
 
The passive voice

 

 
 
The present simple passive
 
Formation
is / are / am + p.p

 

Example
She plays the piano every evening. (active)
The piano is played every day. (passive)
 
The present continuous passive
 
Formation
is / are / am+ being + p.p

 

Example
He is reading some articles in the paper. (active)
Some articles are being read in the paper. (passive)
 
The present perfect passive
 
Formation
has / have + been + p.p

 

Example
They have seen the film at the cinema. (active)
The film has been seen at the cinema. (passive)
 
 
 
 
The past simple passive
 
Formation
was / were + p.p

 

Example
He sent his friend a letter last week. (active)
His friend was sent a letter last week. (passive)
 
The past continuous passive
 
Formation
was / were + being + p.p

 

Example
She was making a new dress for the party. (active)
A new dress was being made for the party. (passive)
 
The past perfect passive
 
Formation
had + been + p.p

 

Example
He had discussed the plan. (active)
The plan had been discussed. (passive)
 
 
 
 
The future simple passive
 
Formation
will + be + p.p

 

Example
They will write some letters. (active)
Some letters will be written. (passive)
 
The future continuous passive
 
Formation
is/are/am + going + to + be + p.p

 

Example
He is going to buy some clothes. (active)
Some clothes are going to be bought. (passive)
 
 
   
 

 

 

 
   
Connectors."And", "but", "so", "because", & "although"

 

 
 
and = more of the same / similar ideas
 
 
Example
He entered the room and opened the window.
 
but = something different
 
Example
He was tired, but he went out.
 
so = as a result
 
Example
I finished my work, so I left the office.
 
because = shows a reason
 
Example
I didn't watch the TV programme because I was busy studying.
 
although = shows a contrast
 
Example
Athlough she was clever, she couldn't answer the question.
 
   

 

 
   
The present perfect continuous tense

 

 
 
Formation
has / have + been + verb + ing

 

We use the present perfect continuous for:
a) an action which began in the past and continues in the present.
 
Example
They have been building the bridge since 1999.
 
 
b) a past action which has an effect on the present.
 
Example
His eyes hurt because he has been reading a lot.
 
 
 
 
Notice the difference between the present perfect and the present perfect continuous:
Example
What have you read this week? (Present perfect - it means what you have finished reading)
What have you been reading this week? (Present perfect continuous - it means what you started reading and is still reading)
   

 

   
 
   
Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets

 

 
He couldn't find a tin opener, so he used a knife to open the tin. (because)
 

 

He used a knife to open the tin because he couldn't find a tin opener.
He got up late, but he caught the bus. (although)
 

 

Although he got up late, he caught the bus.
They started working in the company two years ago. They are still working there. (since)
 

 

They have been working in the company since 2001.
He will do more work next time. (More work)
 

 

More work will be done next time.
 

 



 
   
Choose the correct words

 

 
Some jewels last week.
Some jewels were stolen last week.
The person who is in charge of a newspaper is an .
The person who is in charge of a newspaper is an editor.
A successful TV programme is the one which attracts all .
A successful TV programme is the one which attracts all viewers.
He has his car for two hours. He hasn't stopped yet.
He has been driving his car for two hours. He hasn't stopped yet.
He was very tired, he went on working.
He was very tired, but he went on working.
 

 



 

 

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Past, present and future
 

 

 
   
Questions with "How"

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 137


 
 
How many: for numbers
 
Example
How many engines does a Boeing 747 have?
How many engines will it have in the future?
 
 
How much: for a price
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