Why does Ethics admit a high degree of uncertainty?
The Philosophy of Ethics is also called moral philosophy and is the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong. The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles. Meta-ethics investigates where our moral principles come from, and what they mean. Normative ethics is more practical and is concerned with finding moral principles to govern how we should act. Applied ethics considers applying our moral principles to particular real world situations.
*11) Aristotelian Doctrine of the Mean.virtue is a mean between excess and defect or what is “good” and what is “extreme” (vice-virtue-vice)
*12) The foundation of modern law and justice.
VI. 1) The main Hellenistic schools. Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skepticism, Neo-Platonism
2) What borrowed doctrine did Epicurus develop in physics? The Doctrine of Atomism
3) What concept did Epicurus introduce to physics? “Severing of atoms”-3 types of atom motions: weight, impact with other atoms, without reasonable explanation
4) Epicurus’s supreme good and ultimate end in ethics. The highest pleasure – the absence of pain
5) According to Epicurus, where does the principle of utility find its highest expression? In friendship
*6) Who appreciated a withdrawn and quiet life very high? Epicurus
*7) Who asserted that we must not feel the fear of death and fear of gods? Epicurus
8) What school did Pyrrho of Elis found? Sceptic
9) Why did Pyrrho dispute the possibility of attaining the truth? Total suspension of judgment on things
10) The author of the 10 tropes. Aenesidemus
11) What did Sceptics show in their tropes? We have no opportunity to gain knowledge about anything
*12) What should we do in the situation of impossibility of the truth about the world, according to Sceptics?
13) Who was the founder of Stoic school? Zeno of Citium
*14) The formula that connected with Stoic teaching. “Living in agreement with nature”, “rational selection of the things according to nature.”
*15) What did Stoics assert about of cause of human passions? The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions; rather, they sought to transform them by a resolute 'askēsis' that enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm; the ancient meaning of 'passion' was "anguish" or "suffering"
*16) “Preferable things”, according to Zeno of Citium.Having the necessities of life and health-external things; These preferable things are not goods -- only virtue is a good.
*17) Into what categories did Zeno of Citium divide all people? Completely wise/completely fool
*18) By what is Stoic mode of conduct characterize? By tranquillity of mind and certainty of moral worth.
19) The founder of Neo-Platonism. Plotinus of Lycopolis
20) According to Neo-Platonism.There is a plurality of what is arranged in hierarchical descending order? Plurality of levels of being.
21) Degrees of being, according to Plotinus. Unity
22) The lowest level of being, according to Plotinus.The corporeal world
23) The highest level of being, according to Plotinus.The One (the Good)
24) According to Plotinus, by what is Soul produced? Intellect
25) According to Plotinus, by what is Intellect is produced? By the One
26) According to Plotinus, by what is corporeal world produced? Soul
27)According to Neo-Platonism, by what means can a human reach the contemplation of the One? Only through intellectual tremendous efforts
28) The purpose of human life, according to Neo-Platonism.The union with the One, which gives the state of ecstasy.
VII 1)The defining characteristic of Hindu belief.is the recognition of the Vedas
2)According Hindus believe what is the foundation, cause and goal of all existent? Brahmans