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Word-building elements

According to structure verb may be simple, sound-replacive (food-to feed), stress-replacive (record-to record), expanded or derived (magnify, justify), composite or compound (blackmail), and phrasal (to give a smile).

The original simple verb stems are not numerous. Cf. go, take, read, etc.

The conversion (zero-suffixation) as means of derivation, especially conversion of the "noun — verb" type, greatly enlarges the simple stem set of verbs, (one of the most productive ways of forming verb lexemes). Cf.: a house — to house; a man — to man; a park — to park, etc.

Notional verbs undergo the three main grammatically relevant categorisations.

The verbs presenting a process as potentially limited, can be called "limitive”(arrive, start, aim, drop, get out, be off, etc.

The verbs presenting a process as not limited by any border point, "unlimitive"= "non-terminative"="durative"="cursive"( continue, live, sleep, work, behave, hope, stand, etc.)

Verbaltransitivity, as one of the specific qualities of the general completivity, is the ability of the verb to take a direct object.

An irregular verb is one that does not take the -ed ending for the Past Simple and Past Participle forms.

 

Phrasal verbis a verb complex consisting of a verb and one or more following particles and acting as a complete syntactic and semantic unit. E.g. to look up

The grammatical categories which find formal expression in the outward structure of the verb

· first, the category of finitude dividing the verb into finite and non-finite forms

The finite verb invariably performs the function of the verb-predicate.

The non-finite verb performs functions of the syntactic subject, object, adverbial modifier, attribute.

In other words, the non-finite forms of the verb in self-dependent use perform a potentially predicative function, constituting secondary predicative centres in the sentence.

second, the categories of person, number, tense, aspect, voice, and mood, whose complete set is revealed in every word-form of the notional finite verb.

* The term "verbids" for the non-finite forms of the verb was introduced by O. Jespersen. Its merit lies in the fact that, unlike the more traditional term "verbals", it is devoid of dubious connotations as well as homonymic correlations.

 

The class of verbs falls into a number of subclasses distinguished by different semantic and lexico-grammatical features.

On the upper level of division two unequal sets

the set of verbs of full nominative value (notional verbs),( derivationally open, it includes the bulk of the verbal lexicon)

the set of verbs of partial nominative value (semi-notional and functional verbs)( is derivationally closed, it includes limited subsets of verbs characterised by individual relational properties)

Auxiliary verbs constitute grammatical elements of the categorial forms of the verb. These are the verbs be, have, do, shall, will, should, would, may, might.



Modal verbs are used with the infinitive as predicative markers expressing relational meanings of the subject attitude type, i.e. ability, obligation, permission, advisability, etc.

Link-verbs introduce the nominal part of the predicate (the predicative) which is commonly expressed by a noun, an adjective, or a phrase of a similar semantic-grammatical character. they have meaningful content. They expose the relational aspect of the characteristics ascribed by the predicative to the subject.

The linking predicator function in the purest form is effected by the verb be (pure link-verb)All the link-verbs other than the pure link be express some specification of this general predicative-linking semantics, so that they should be referred to as "specifying" link-verbs. The common specifying link-verbs fall into two main groups: those that express perceptions(seem, appear, look, feel, taste) and "factual" link-verb connection(become, get, grow, remain, keep) some notional verbs in language have the power to perform the function of link-verbs without losing their lexical nominative value "double predicate". (Fred lay awake all through the night.)

 

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 193


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