Workers in Ghana as those in other parts of the world desire quality employment. A study conducted by
Negandhi (1985), in six African countries with similar work ethics and environment as Ghana revealed
that, workers in Africa and those of other countries in Europe and America, want not only wages and job
security but also opportunities for advancement, fair treatment, better working conditions, challenging and
interesting jobs, autonomy on the job and responsibility. Thus, the Ghanaian worker is also motivated by
the motivator factors as postulated in Herzberg’s theory. For most organisations teamwork and group cohesiveness have been seen to be essential for a conducive working environment and important in
establishing positive workgroup relationships. Teamwork approach to work encourages a feeling of
belongingness and is able to bring about innovative ways of doing things through brainstorming. This
enhances synergy at the workplace among colleagues and could have a positive impact on performance a
motivator factor which is very much appreciated in the Ghanaian workforce.
As Frederick Herzberg explained in his theory, it does not take only the motivators factors to motivate
employees neither does it take the hygiene factors to remove dissatisfaction. To motivate and satisfy
employees, managers need to effectively blend the factors well to suit the special needs of their employees.
In Ghana, it would be more prudent for managers to strike a balance between the motivator factors and
hygiene factors with more emphasis on the hygiene factors since it appears to motivate the Ghanaian
worker better. After all, there is a popular saying in Ghana that ‘a hungry man is an angry man’ and
certainly a hungry and an angry man’s performance and commitment to work is likely to be affected
negatively and invariably affect organisational performance and therefore these need to be well managed
for efficiency and effectiveness in Ghanaian organisations.
Using theory in TESCO.
Tesco aims to motivate its employees both by paying attention to hygiene factors and by enabling satisfiers. For example, it motivates and empowers its employees by appropriate and timely communication, by delegating responsibility and involving staff in decision making. It holds forums every year in which staff can be part of the discussions on pay rises. This shows recognition of the work Tesco people do and rewards them.
Tesco staff can even influence what food goes onto its restaurant menus. Employees thus become motivated to make choices that will increase their use of the restaurants.
(The Times 100)
Tesco recognise how motivated stuff who are committed to their work have a positive effect on Company performance. They invest several million pounds each year in training schemes which are based on Herzberg motivators e.g.
· New and more open lines of communication between managers and staff
· Directors and senior managers spend a week on the shop floor listening to ideas from customers and staff
· A scheme exists to spot individual talent and to fast-track shop floor workers up the promotional ladder
· A better understanding of individual employees personal circumstances
These initiatives have helped Tesco deliver record growth and sales profits and illustrate how theory may be used in practice.
To sum up, if management wishes to increase satisfaction on the job, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself – the opportunities it presents employees for gaining status, assuming responsibility, and achieving self-realization. If, on the other hand, management wishes to reduce dissatisfaction, then it must focus on the job environment – policies, procedures, supervision, and working conditions. To ensure a satisfied and productive workforce, managers must give attention to both sets of job factors.
Herzberg, F. (1966).Work and the nature of man, Cleveland, OH: World Publishing Company.
Gaziel, H. (1986). Correlates of job satisfaction: A study of the two factor theory in an educational setting. The Journal of Psychology, 120(6), 613-626.
Herzberg, F. (1987). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, 65(5), 109-120.
Ruthankoon, R., & Ogunlana, S.O. (2003). Testing Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory in the ThaiConstruction Industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. 10(5),333-342.
The Times 100, teacing business studies by examples: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/tesco/motivational-theory-in-practice-at-tesco/maslow-and-herzberg.html#axzz2rVRZsSr1
Rathavoot Ruthankoon, Stephen Olu Ogunlana, (2003) "Testing Herzberg’s two-factor theory in the Thai construction industry", Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 10 Iss: 5, pp.333 – 341
European Journal of Business and Management, ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839,Vol 3, No.9, 2011