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I’d like to invite you to attend my birthday party.

What about coming to my sister’s wedding?

Refusing I am sorry, I can’t. I wish I could , but I’m busy I’d love to, but… Thanks for inviting me, but… Accepting I’d love to. So be it وهو كذلك I’m pleased to come Great idea . Ok .

 

Direct Mustafa said, « I am tired. » {The actual words of the speaker.}

Indirect Mustafa said that he was tired. { Reported Speech.}

الكلام المباشر هو الكلام الذى يقولة الشخص ذاتة//الكلام الغير المباشرهو الكلام المنقولReported speech

1] We use reported speech to report statements:

% NoteChanging direct speech into indirect speechas the following.

لتحويل الكلام المباشر الى غير مباشر يكون كما يلى نبدأ بقائل العبارة ثم نتبعة ب said /answered /replied

واذا وجدا مخاطب نستخدم told ونذكر المخاطب ثم نحذف الاقواس ونربط ب that ويمكن عدم استخدامها

%نحول الضمائر التى بداخل الاقواس الى مايناسب المعنى مثل

نحول الفعل المضارع الى ماضي/// واذا كان الفعل ماضى نحولة الى ماضى تام مثل

{ am/is/are } { was / were }

{ will / shall } { would }

{ visit } {visited}

øIn spoken English we often omit that in reported sentences.



øWe can use different words to report direct speech: said,

answered,replied,told etc.when we use told it must be followed by

the person who was told:

%Examples:

1] Direct The children said, « we are doing our homework,Mr. Alaa. »

Indirect The children told Mr. Alaa thattheywere doing their homework.

2] Direct « I've eaten my food, Hala,» said Nehal.

Indirect Nehal told Hala that she had eaten her food.

3] direct The sons said, « We had our dinner, mum..»

Indirect The sons told mum that they had had their dinner.

4] Direct Gehad said, « I was writing my lesson, Mr. Ahmed. »

Indirect Gehad told Mr. Ahmed that she had been writing her lesson.

5] Direct « I did my homework yesterday, Adel.» Ali said.

Indirect Ali told Adel that he had done his homework the day before.

6] Direct « you should do your homework, » dad said.

Indirect Dad told / advised / me that I had to do my homework.

ملحوظة: الحقائق العلمية يكون فعلها كما هو بدون تغير**********************************************

7] direct « The earth goes round the sun, » said the teacher.

Direct The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.

8] Direct Wafaa says, « I feel hungry »

Indirect Wafaa says she feels hungry.

عند التحويل من مباشر الى غير مباشر نستخدم التحويلات الآتية

 

u

uاذا كان الحديث المباشر يحتوى على جملتين خبريتين نربطهما معاً بالعبارة

{ and that // and add that }

Direct Tom said, « I know that it is wrong. I shall try to do it better tomorrow »

Indirect Tom said that he knew that it was wrong and added that he would try to do it better

the next day.

v يجب ان لا نغير زمن الجملة اذا كان ذلك سيؤدى الى اضطراب فى المعنى

Direct He said , « My name is Ahmed. »

Indirect He said (that) his name is Ahmed.

wاذا بدأت جملة الكلام المباشر بكلمة yes نحذفها ونحول said الى answered او agreedاوagreed to+inf اوadmitted+ing

Direct : The boy said, " Yes, I ate the food. "( The boy admitted )( The boy agreed )

Indirect: The boy admitted eating the food.=The boy agreed to eat the food.

Direct He said, « Yes, this is my coat. »

Indirect He answered in affirmative that that it was his coat.انة اجاب باثبات

xاذا بدأت جملة الكلام المباشر بكلمة No نحذف said ونحولها الى *refused to+inf*answered in negative// denied

Direct He said, « No, it isn't. »

Indirect He answered in negative that it was not. or He denied to be so هو أنكر أن يكون كذالك

***********************************************************************

yاذا كانت جملة الكلام المباشر على صورة تحية نحول said to الى wished اذا كانت وداع نحول said الى bade

Direct He said to me , « Good morning . It's fine to day.»

Indirect He wished //greeted// me good morning and added it was fine that day.

Direct He said to me ,«Good bye. »I shall see you next week. »

Indirect He bade me good bye and added that he would see me the following week.

Direct He said to me , « Thank you very much. »

Indirect He thanked me very much.

zاذا جاءت كلمة اعتذار مثل I'm sorry نحولها الى He apologized for+v.+ing

@Must / should had to ♣♣ mustn't / needn't didn't have to لاحظ التحويلات الآتية

Direct He said , « I must go now.»

Indirect He said he had to go then.

Direct He said , « I needn't go. »

Indirect He said that he didn't have to go.

{اذا جاءت must لتعبر عن الالزام او المنع تبقى كما هى

Direct Dad said to us, « you mustn't cross the road against the red light. »

Indirect Dad told us we mustn't cross the road against the red light.

|نحول come here فى الكلام المباشر الى go there فى الكلام الغير مباشر

Direct He said to me, « I shall come here tomorrow. »

Indirect He told me that he would go there the next day.

}اذا كان الكلام المباشر جملة شرطية نحول حالة الشرط الأولى إلى الثانية اما الثانية والثالثة تبقى كما هى بدون تغيير

Direct He said to me, « If I run fast, I will catch the train. »

Indirect He told me that if he ran fast, he would catch the rain.

Direct He said , « If I were rich, I would buy a car. »

Indirect He said that if he were rich, he would buy acar.

لا تتغير التعبيرات الاتية عند التحويل الى الغير مباشر

 

Direct He said to me , « you'd better get up early. »

Indirect He told / advised / me that I 'd better get up early.

Direct « You ought to read the instruction. » said he.

Indirect He advised me to read the instruction.

الأمر و الطلب

 

 

♣ To change the command sentences into indirect speech {reported speech }, we omit { said /said to}

And use { told / asked / ordered / commanded / advised / warned / begged } in reported instructions.

لتحويل الجمل الامرية او التعليمات الى كلام غير مباشر نستخدم ونحذف الاقواس ونضعto+inf.

Examples

Direct « Do your homework, Amira,» said Dina.

Indirect Dina told Amira to do her homework.

Or Dina asked Amira to doher homework.

Direct Mr. said, « Bring your toys, children. »

Indirect Mr. Alaa told the childrento bringtheir toys.

Direct Dad said, « Take your present. »

Indirect Dad asked me to take my present.

Direct The officer said to his man,« Fire ! » اطلق النار

Indirect The officer ordered his man to fire

Direct The doctor said to me, « Give up smoking and go to bed early. »

Indirect The doctor advisedmeto give up smoking and to go to bed early.

فى حالة النهى نحول Don't الى not to

Direct « Don't make so much noise,»said dad

Indirect Dad warned me not to make so much noise

Direct « Don't fight with your brother, Mustafa,» said Mohamed

Indirect Mohamed told Mustafa not to fight with his brother.

*******************************************************************************

لاحظ الجمل الآتية عند التحويل إلى مباشر

نلاحظ ان let نحولها الىsuggested+v.+ing{speaker+suggested+that+listener+should+inf. }

1] Direct « Come with me, » said Mena

Indirect Mena suggested that I should go with her.

2] Direct He said, « Let's stay at home.»

Indirect He suggested that we should stay at home.

3] Direct He said, « Let them go home. »

Indirect He suggested that they should go home=He.

Yes or No Question سؤال هل

Direct« Will you visit your cousin? » Rehab / asked – said /.

Indirect Rehab asked me if I would visit my cousin.

لتحويل سؤال هل الى غير مباشر / كمايلى

Sub. +{asked/wondered/wanted to know}…+{ if/whether}+فعل ماضى+ضميرفاعل

Examples iii

Direct « Are you having your dinner,Sahar?» asked Gehad.

Indirect Gehad askedSahar if she was having her dinner.

اذا كان السؤال ب Do//Doesنحذفهما و نضع الفعل فى الماضى Did♣نضع الفعل فى الماضى التام

Direct Mr. Ahmed asked us,« Have you finished your homework?»

Indirect Mr. Ahmed wanted to know whether we had finished our homework

Direct «Did you have your dinner, children?» Asked mum

Indirect Mum asked children if they had had their dinner.

 

 

Wh. Question

Direct « How old areyou ? » Aked Aya

Indirect Aya asked me how old I was.

لتحويل سؤال wh. الى غير مباشر نستخدم اداة الاستفهام كاداة ربط

Sub♣{ asked/ wondered / wanted to know }obj.+ { wh } Sub.pron. + past v.

****************************************************************************

Examples

Direct « Where will you go, Nehal? » asked Asmaa.

Indirect Asmaa asked Nehal where she would go.

اذا كان الفعل المساعد do / does / did نحذفهم و نحول الفعل الاساسى كما ذكرنا

Direct Ibrahim asked Mustafa, «What does your mother cook?»

Indirect Ibrahim asked Mustafa what his mother cooked.

Direct « What were you doing yesterday? »asked El- Shaymaa.

Indirect E-Shaymaa wanted to know what I had been doing

Direct «When did you have your supper, Wafaa? »asked Hala

Indirect Halaa sked wafaa when she had had her supper.

Direct «What's your name?» Mr. Ahmed asked.

Indirect Mr. Ahmed asked me what my name is.

************************************************************************************************************

@Notice the following sentences Notes

اذا كان السؤال يبدأ ب Would you mind + v.+ ing ♣♣ تحول الىHe asked me to+infinitive

Or He wanted me to+ infinitive

1] He said , « Would you mind opening the door?»

Indirect He asked me to open the door

اذا كان السؤال يبدأ ب Would you like to+infinitive♣♣ تحول الىHe suggested+v+ing

 

2] He said ,« Would you like to have a cup of tea? »

Indirect He suggested a cup of tea -- or—He suggested having a cup of tea

اذا كان السؤال يبدأ ب Would you like +noun..♣♣ تحول الىHe offered me+ noun

 

3] He said, « Would you like tea?»

Indirect He offered me tea.

*****************************************************************************

4] « What about tea?» he said.

Indirect He suggested tea.

5] « what about going to the cinema tomorrow ?» he said.

Indirect He suggested going to the cinema the next day.

6] « Why don't you ask him? »he said.

Indirect He suggested asking him -- or -- He advised me to ask him

 

7] « Could I have a cup of tea? » he said

Indirect He asked me for a cup of tea

8] « Could you live alone?» he said

Indirect He asked me if I could live alone

 

 

Finally, Don't forget:

say -----›› say says -----›› says said -----›› said

say to -----›› tell says to -----›› tells said to -----›› told

- إذا كان فعل القول ماضىومعة كلمة تدل على الوقت الجالى والكلام قد انتهى منذ فترة قصيرة ( حالا أو توا ) لا تتغير الأزمنة أو ظروف الزمان أو المكان.

مع التعبيرات التالية :

( now / just now / a moment ago / a minute ago / a short time ago / recently

Ex:

* He said just now " I will visit the zoo tomorrow. " ( He said just now that )

----» He said just now that he will visit the zoo tomorrow.

- إذا كانت الجملة تدل على عادة متكررة لا تتغير الأزمنة أو ظروف المكان أو الزمان .

Ex:

* He said " I go to school everyday at 7 o'clock. "

----» He said that he goes to school every day at 7 o'clock.

 
 

 

 


@ Choose the correct answer:

1- Ahmed says that he (went-gone-goes-had gone) to Alex every year.

2- He (told-said-asked-ordered) he was living with his uncle.

3- He said that he (had written-would write-is writing-was writing) a letter then.

4- He told me that he (will reach-would reach-reached-had reached) Cairo the following week.

5- Mohamed (said-told-asked-spoke) he had never been to Luxor.

6- He said that he (attended-was attending-had attended-has attended) the meeting the day before.

7- He said that he (would see-has seen-had seen-was seen) a new film on TV the night before.

8- He told me that he (will visit-would visit-is visiting-visited) me the next day.

9- He said just now that he (bought-has bought-would buy-will buy) a new car next month.

10-He said that he (doesn't go-wouldn't go-hadn't gone-won't go ) to school the previous day

Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets :

 

1.He says , " I'm pleased to get the prize " ( He says that )

2.He said , " I shall meet him at six o'clock . "( He said that )

3.He said to me , " stop when the light is red . " ( He told me )

4.She said to her sister, " Don't play in the street "( not to )

5.He asked me when I arrived . ( He said to me )

6.He advised me not to work for a late hour .( don't )

7.The teacher said , " Don't write the questions . "( not to )

8.Mother said to me, " Don't be late . "( not to )

9." Leave me a lone, " said Mona to her friends .( to leave )

10.He said to the pupils, " Don't leave before you finish "( He told the pupils )

11.She said to me , " Don't write your name on the box . "( She told me )

12." I'm going to travel to ِAmerica . "( He told me )

13.He said, " I went to the cinema last Monday . "( He told me )

14.She said to me, " I'll buy a new car next month." ( She told me )

15.Ahmed said to Ali, " I have won the prize last week."( Ahmed told Ali )

Write what you would say in each of the following situations :

1- You invite your uncle to come to your birthday party .

2. You agree with your friend to watch a football match on TV .

3. Your friend invites you to visit him on his farm, but you refuse the invitation . Say why

4. Your brother wants you to play a computer game with him , but you are busy You invite your sister to go to the cinema.

5. You refuse your friend’s invitation to her birthday party.

6- You accept your friend’s invitation to her wedding party.

-Read and correct the underlined words :

1) I asked him what old he was. 2) She asked me what me favourite sport was. 3) Gehad said Basma what radio programmes she liked. 4) Nourhan asked Rana where he is born. 5) Mayada asked Salma where her CD player is. 6) Weaam told Alaa how long she was staying in Cairo. 7) I asked my friend where was he going. 8) The tourist asked me how he can cross the river. (…………….) (…………….) (…………….) (…………….) (…………….) (…………….) (…………….) (…………….)

- Read the following passage , then answer the questions :

Science has told us so much about the moon that it is easy to know a lot of things about it_. The moon is not a friendly place . As there is no air or water , there can be no life of any kind . For mile after mile there are many big mountains. Above , the sun and stars shine in a black sky . If you move away from the mountain shadows , it will mean moving from very low temperatures into great heat. These temperatures break rocks away from the surface of the mountains . The moon is also a very silent world because sounds can only travel through air . From this distance , the earth is shining more than the stars . It looks like a big ball , coloured blue , green and brown .

A ) Answer the following questions :

1 - Is there any life on the moon ?

2 - Why is the moon a silent world ?

3 - What does the earth look like from the moon ?

B) - Choose the correct answer from a , b , c or d .

There are many big ........................... on the moon .

a) mountains b) countries c) houses d) farms

5 - The underlined word "it" refers to ................

a) the sun b) the earth c) the star d) the moon

Above the moon , the sun and stars shine in a ................. sky .

a) blue b) black c) green d) brown

 

 

 

mystery سر غامض student pilot طالب طيار message رسالة
secret سر in addition to بالاضافة الى consist of يتكون من
sleepwalk يسير اثناء النوم compass بوصلة leader قائد
warm دافئ continue يستمر artist فنان
sunken ship سفينة غارقة radio لاسلكى safely بأمان
sailor بحار weak ضعيف century قرن
reporter مراسل صحفى disappear يختفى exactly بالضبط
blood دم search for يبحث عن control يتحكم فى
on board على متن سفينة/طائرة chemist صيدلى treasure كنز
wrong خطأ take care of يهتم بـ close to قريب من
right صواب solve يحل search ship سفينة بحث
set off ينطلق smash يحطم search plane طائرة بحث
captain ربان السفينة disappoint يحبط missing مفقود
boat مركب earlier kinds انواع بدائية island جزيرة
tired متعب Bermuda Triangle مثلث برمودا medicine دواء/طب
probably من المحتمل area منطقة crew طاقم
take off تقلع الطائرة speak about يتحدث عن sail يبحر
airport مطار strange غريب crash into يصطدم بـ
send out يرسل airport controller مراقب المطار follow يتابع/يتعقب
flight رحلة طيران terrible فظيع pilot طيار

 

 


تبدأ العبارات الموصولة بإحدى ضمائر الوصل

(who / whom / which / that / whose / where / when)

Œ Who = that تحل محل الفاعل العاقل ويأتي بعدها الفعل ((الذي- التي --- -للعاقل) w- That is the doctor. He cured your father.

That is the doctor who cured your father.

w- The girl is my daughter. She won the medal.

The girl who\ that won the medal is my daughter.

 Who – whom – thatتحل محل المفعول العاقل ويأتي بعدها الفاعل) (الذي – التي) She married the man. She loved him.

She married the manwhom \ who \ that\she loved.

ŽWhich = that (الذي – التي)

وتحل محل الفاعل والمفعول غيرا لعاقل ويأتي بعدها الفاعل أو الفعل وتحل محل (it/they)

w- He works for a company. It manufactures computers.

He works for a companywhich \ that manufactures computers

The lesson is easy .I understoodit quickly. (which)

The lesson which I understood quickly is easy.

Whose) في الجمله الثانيه )my/his/her/your/our/their/اسم’s تحل محل(( (ذو/مالك)

w- The plan had to land. Its engine was out of order. مالك + whose+ مملوك

The plane whose engine was out of order had to land.

Did you see Sarah ? Her father is a tour guide . (whose)

Did you see Sarah whose father is a tour guide ?

 Where=which…….in. حيث وتحل محل المكان ويأتي قبلها المكان مباشره

w- This is my school. I study init.

This is my school where I study.

This is my school whichI study in.

When حيث وتحل محل الزمان ويأتي قبلها مباشرة الزمان

w- They visit my on Friday. I am at home at that day.

They visit me on Friday when I am at home.

w- June is the month. We go on holiday in it.

June is the month when we go on holiday

That’s why ولهذا تستخدم بعد الأسماء التي تبين سبب حدوث الشيء

Amira couldn’t go to school because she was ill

= Amira was ill that’s why she couldn’t go to school.

Summary:

Who Whom That which الذي – التي ( العاقل) الذي – التي ( المفعول العاقل) الذي – التي ( للعاقل وغير العاقل) الذي – التي ( غير العاقل ( Whose Where When what الذي له ( للملكية) حيث ( للمكان) حيث ( للزمان) ما (لغير العاقل)

 

 

 

 


ΠFinish the sentences :

This is the man ----------- invited me to play tennis.

July is the month ------------ we take our exams.

This is the man ----------- car was stolen.

This is the house ------------ I was born.

I read the newspaper --------- was on the table.

Mr Smith is my neighbour ------------ I meet every morning.

The laboratory is the place ------------- we do experiments at school.

Luxor is the city ------------------ I work in.

9- This the shop …………… I always buy sweets.

***************************************************************

1) Finish the following dialogue:


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 510


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