It the devices intended for information transform from a look, convenient for the computer in a look, user-friendly. In the computer information is stored in a digital form, and the user got used to information representation in the form of the text, the image, a sound. The most widespread output devices:
Video card – the principal output device creating the image for a video monitor. The modern video cards are arranged approximately as well as the computer: they contain the processor for video signal processing (video processor), video memory for image storage, a fixed memory (similar BIOS), and containing program for video processor operation. The modern video cards can be supplied with outputs for connection of the TV set, the second monitor, etc.
Video monitor – receiving information from a video card, displays it in the form of the text and images. The following types of these devices at the moment are issued: monitors on the basis of the cathode ray tube; monitors on liquid crystals; monitors plasma
The projector is intended to an output of video information to the big screen
Printers are intended to information output on paper. Types of printers: the matrix, the jet, the laser, the thermal
Matrix and thermal printers aren't issued now in the form of separate devices. They are a part now of cash and fax registers.
The data plotter is used in design offices for drawing of drawings.
The sound card will transform numbers to clear sounds for the person.
Head Mounted Display. In systems of the virtual reality output devices in the form of displays mounted on the head (by Head Mounted Display – HMD) with the binocular omnidirectional monitor (Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor – BOOM) with means of tracing of position of the head (head tracking) and even tracing of position of an eye (eye tracking) are used. It is required for creation of effect of «dipping» with the stereoscopic image and operational change of a scene in case of turns of the head and/or an eye.
The graphics editor is the program (or the software package), which allows to create and edit two-dimensional images by means of the computer.
Types of graphic editors:
•Raster graphic editors. Are most popular: Adobe Photoshop for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, GIMP operating systems for GNU/Linux and other POSIX-compatible.
•Vectorial graphic editors. Are most popular: Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, and Macromedia Free Hand – for the Microsoft Windows; and Mac OS X, Inkscape operating systems – for all OS.
Functions of all graphic editors are approximately identical (one of the elementary graphic editors to IBM compatible computers – Paintbrush). They allow the user:
•To create figures from graphic primitives;
•To apply to drawing different colors and «paintbrushes» (i.e. to use lines of different width and a configuration);
•To «cut» figures or their parts, temporarily to store them in the buffer («pocket») or to remember on external carriers;
•To move a figure fragment on the screen;
•To «splice» one figure with another;
•To increase a fragment of a figure to draw fine details;
•To add to figures the text.
Many graphic editors allow creating also computer animation (animation), i.e. to create on the computer moving images.
«Environment» of a graphic editor consists of three main parts. An instrumental part – a set of the icons figuring tools. Normally it:
– «paintbrush» for the image of lines of arbitrary configuration, «ruler» for carrying out segments of straight lines,
– «circle», «rectangle», «ellipse» for creation of the appropriate figures,
– «eraser» for erasing of images,
– «roller» for filling of figures,
– «scissors» for cutting of fragments of images.
Other part of the environment – a palette for a choice of color of images.
At last, the third part – the menu of commands of the editor. These parts of the environment normally settle down along the edges of the screen. The central part of the screen is intended for a working field (or as speak, «canvas») on which images are created.
The graphic editor, as a rule, has the following main operation modes: a mode of a choice and tool setup, a mode of a choice of color, an operation mode with a figure (drawing and editing), and an operation mode with external devices.
Working with a graphic editor, the user applies not only the keypad, but also (to the majority of the modern computers and editors) the pointing device a mouse. Creating images on the computer screen, it is possible not only to draw them most, but also to use other images, for example photos, figures from books etc. For input of such additional graphic information in the computer the special device – the scanner is used.