Home Random Page


CATEGORIES:

BiologyChemistryConstructionCultureEcologyEconomyElectronicsFinanceGeographyHistoryInformaticsLawMathematicsMechanicsMedicineOtherPedagogyPhilosophyPhysicsPolicyPsychologySociologySportTourism






Informatics as a unity of science and technology.

The matter, energy and information are the basic essence of nature; they are «three whales» upon which the universe is based. And if the matter and energy role in the existence of human society and the Universe as a whole was realized for many years ago, information role in the live and lifeless nature only just start to be understood.

The modern informatics is great on volume and it is very dynamic. The courses of mathematics, physics, chemistry, theoretical mechanics, theory of electric chains, chemistry and the majority of other disciplines studied in higher education institutions practically haven’t been changed for many years of training, this process of training in informatics is dynamic.

First of all, it is necessary to define what the subject «Informatics» is. The interpretation of the term «informatics» isn't established and it is not considered to be standard.

Informatics is a young scientific discipline studying questions connected with search, collecting, storage, transformation and information use in the most various fields of activity of the person.

Let's see the history of emergence and development of the first computers.

After the Second World War the cybernetics appeared and developed. Cybernetics is a science about the general regularities in management and communication in various systems – artificial, biological and social. The birth of cybernetics is connected with the publication of the book of American mathematician «Cybernetics: Or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine» in 1948. Developing at the same time with the computer development, the cybernetics passed to the general science about information transformation.

The attempt to define the meaning of modern informatics was made in 1978. The international congress on informatics – «The concept of informatics covers the areas connected with development, creation, use and material service of systems of processing of information, including cars, equipment, software, organizational aspects and also the complex of industrial, commercial, administrative and social influence»

The term «informatique» is entered in France in the 60-70th years of the last century. A little earlier in the USA there was a term «computer science» – information transformation on the basis of computer facilities. Now both terms are used on equal ground. In the USSR the term «informatics» was fixed in 1983 when in the Academy of Sciences of the USSR the office of informatics, computer facilities and automation was created. The modern meaning of the term «informatics» contains in the definition formulated by the international congress in Japan in 1978:

The informatics is a complex of the scientific and practical disciplines studying all aspects of receiving, storage, transformation, transfer and information use.

The informatics has two complementary aspects – scientific and technological. The scientific aspect is more settled, technological aspect is very mobile, though in a technological part there is quite created kernel which is a little subjected to changes.



The informatics is the technical science systematizing receptions of creation, storage, reproduction, processing, and data transmission by means of computer aids, and also principles of functioning of these means and methods of their control. The informatics is a practical science. The informatics as a science develops on the basis of mathematics, cybernetics, physics, and equipment.

The concepts «informatics» and «cybernetics» are identified, but it is wrong. Cybernetics – science about the general regularities in management and communication in various systems.

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 266


<== previous page | next page ==>
Topic 1. The basic concepts of informatics. | Ethical aspects of informatics
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2017 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.004 sec.)