Ñ. COMPOSITIONAL PATTERNS OF SYNTACTICAL ARRANGEMENT
The structural syntactical aspect is sometimes regarded as the crucial issue in stylistic analysis, although the peculiarities of syntactical arrangement are not so conspicuous as the lexical and phraseological properties of the utterance. Syntax is figuratively called the "sinews of style".
Structural syntactical stylistic devices are in special relations with the intonation involved. Prof. Peshkovsky points out that there is an interdependence between the intonation and syntactical properties of the sentence, which may be worded in the following manner: the more explicitly the structural syntactical relations are expressed, the weaker will be the intonation-pattern of the utterance (to complete disappearance) and vice-versa, the stronger the intonation, the weaker grow the evident syntactical relations (also to complete
disappearance)1. This can be illustrated by means of the following two pairs of sentences: 'Only after dinner did I make up my mind to go there' and 'I made up my mind to go there only after dinner.' 'It was in Bucharest that the Xth International Congress of Linguists took place' and' The Xth International Congress of Linguists took place in Bucharest.'
The second sentences in these pairs can be made emphatic only by intonation; the first sentences are made emphatic by means of the syntactical patterns: 'Only after dinner did I...' and 'It was... that...'
The problem of syntactical stylistic 'devices appears to be closely linked not only with what makes an utterance more emphatic but also with the more general problem of predication. As is known, the English affirmative sentence is regarded as neutral if it maintains the regular word-order, i.e.' subject—predicate—object (or other secondary members of the sentence, as they are called). Any other order of the parts of the sentence may also carry the necessary information, but the impact on the reader will be different. Even a slight change in the word-order of a sentence or in the order of the sentences in a more complicated syntactical unit will inevitably cause a definite modification of the meaning of the whole. An almost imperceptible rhythmical design introduced into a prose sentence, or a sudden break in the sequence of the parts of the sentence, or any other change will add something to the volume of information contained in the original sentence.
Unlike the syntactical expressive means of the language, which "are naturally used in discourse in a straight-forward natural manner, syntactical stylistic devices are perceived as elaborate designs aimed at having a definite impact on the reader. It will be borne in mind that any SD is meant to be understood as a device and is calculated to produce a desired stylistic effect.
When viewing the stylistic functions of different syntactical designs we must first of all take into consideration two aspects:
1. The juxtaposition of different parts of the utterance.
2. The way the parts are connected with each other.
In addition to these two large groups of EMs and SDs two other groups may be distinguished:
3. Those based on the peculiar use of colloquial constructions.
4. Those based pn the stylistic use of structural meaning.
Date: 2015-12-18; view: 358