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The 3d stressed syllable from the end

Stress in derivatives

Stress in a derivative may remain the same as in the word from which it was derived, or change in a certain way.

The same stress:deNY (verb) - deNIal (noun)

Shift of stress: preSENT (verb) - PRESent (noun)

There are many two-syllable words in English whose stress changes depending on meaning and class. For two-syllable words used as both nouns and verbs, stress nouns on the first syllable, and verbs on the second syllable.

examples: to present(verb) a present (noun)

There are words which are similar but have different stress patterns depending on the part of speech:


O o

equal

final

O O oo

equality

finality

O o o

equalise

Finalise

O o o O o

equalisation

finalisation


When other parts of speech are derived from nouns and verbs, typical patterns of stress are:

Adjectives are usually stressed on the first syllable or repeat the stress of the nouns from which they were derived, for example, fate (noun) - FATal (adjective). But stress may change in longer derivative adjectives, for example, METal (noun) - meTALlic (adjective).

Adverbs are usually stressed on the first syllable or repeat the stress of the adjectives from which they were derived, e.g. ANgry - ANgrily, WONderful - WONderfully, FOOLish - FOOLishly, athLETic - athLETically.

Gerunds and participles repeat the stress of the verbs from which they were formed, for example, forGET - forGETting - forGOTten, CANcel - CANceling CANceled.

Here are some general tendencies for word stress in English:

Word Type of word Tendency Exceptions
apple happy two-syllable nouns and adjectives stress on the first syllable O o hotel lagoon
suspect import insult words which can be used as both nouns and verbs the noun has stress on the first syllable O o"You are the suspect!" the verb has stress on the second syllable o O"I suspect you." respect witness
hairbrush football compound nouns fairly equally balanced but with stronger stress on the first part O o  
Stress on first syllable
rule example
Most 2-syllable nouns CHIna, TAble
Most 2-syllable adjectives CLEVer, HAPpy

Stress the suffix itself:
-rule example
-ee employee
-eer engineer
-ese Chinese
-que unique
-ain entertain
-ette cigarette
Stress on last syllable
rule example
Most 2-syllable verbs to deCIDE, to beGIN



The 2nd stressed syllable from the end

rule example
Words ending in - ial memorial
Words ending in - ual visual
Words ending in -ian Canadian
Words ending in - sion explosion
Words ending in - tion definition
Words ending in - ient ancient
Words ending in - cious delicious
Words ending in - tious ambitious
Words ending in - ic academic
Words ending in ible edible

The 3d stressed syllable from the end



rule example
Words ending in -cy democracy
Words ending in -al critical
Words ending in -ate operate
Words ending in -ize (ise) apologize
Words ending in -ary secretary
Words ending in -ous dangerous
Words ending in -ty dependability
Words ending in -phy photography
Words ending in -gy geology
Words ending in - fy classify
Words ending in -meter kilometer
Words ending in -ute, -ude gratitude, substitute

Compound words (words with two parts)

rule example
For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part BLACKbird, GREENhouse
For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned
For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part to underSTAND, to overFLOW
Stress two-word verbs more strongly on the second word, but for their noun equivalents, stress them on the first part. Noun: Here's the printout. Verb: He printed it out.


There exist some disyllabic English words in which both syllables have strong stress. Such are compound nouns (|wee\kend), compound adjectives (|kind-\hearted), compound numerals (|fif\teen), phrasal verbs (|get \up), etc. They are said to be double-stressed. There stress is subject to rhythmical variations in a sentence. The stress of double-stressed words is very often modified in sentences. The first of the stressed syllables is likely to lose its stress when closely preceded by another stressed syllable; similarly the second of the stressed syllables is likely to lose its stress when closely followed by another stressed syllables.

e.g.: He is |good-natured \person.

The |man is good-\natured.


Word stress Quiz

1. Divide the pairs of word into two groups:

Shift of stress: The same stress:
   

offend (verb) - offence (noun)

extract (v) - extract (n)

deny (v) - denial (noun)

review (noun) - review (v)

product (n) produce (v)

refer (v) - reference (noun)

decide (v) decision (n)

increase (v) - increase (noun)

vary (v) various (adj)

preview (noun) - preview (v)

portray (v) portrayal (n)

object (noun) - object (v)

hospital (noun) - hospitalize (v)

present (v) - present (noun)


2. Read and translate the sentences. Decide which of the identical words is a verb and which is a noun:

A)

1. The farm was used to produce produce.

2. The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.

3. The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.

4. Since there is no time like the present, he thought it was time to present the present.

5. I did not object to the object.

6. The insurance was invalid for the invalid.

7. I had to subject the subject to a series of tests.

8. The bank recorded a new record yesterday.

9. He presented his wife with a beautiful present.

10. They're conducting a study into his conduct.

11. The suspect was suspected of robbing the bank.

12. The desert is so dry that it is usually deserted.

 


Date: 2015-12-18; view: 270


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