|| LANGUAGE UNITS
|| NOTES AND COMMENTS
|| Premeditated murder is the most serious charge tried in our criminal courts.
|| a PREMEDITATED crime or attack is planned in advance and done deliberately;
CHARGE an official statement made by the police saying that they believe someone may be guilty of a crime: Nine people have pleaded guilty to various charges.
TRY to examine and judge a legal case, or someone who is thought to be guilty of a crime in a court: He was tried for attempting to murder his wife.
|| Youíve listened to testimonyÖ
|| formal statement saying that something is true, especially one a witness makes in a court of law:
Barker's testimony is crucial to the prosecution's case.
|| ..Try and separate the facts from the fancy.
|| (OLD-FASHIONED) an idea or opinion that is not based on fact: Oh, that was just a fancy of his.
|| A manís life is at stake.
|| if something that you value very much is at stake, you will lose it if a plan or action is not successful:
National pride is at stake in next week's game against England.
|| a reasonable doubt
|| Generally the prosecution bears the burden of proof and is required to prove their version of events to this standard. This means that the proposition being presented by the prosecution must be proven to the extent that there could be no "reasonable doubt" in the mind of a "reasonable person" that the defendant is guilty. There can still be a doubt, but only to the extent that it would not affect a reasonable person's belief regarding whether or not the defendant is guilty.
|| the accused
|| the person or group of people who have been officially accused of a crime or offence in a court of law
|| in good conscience
|| FML if you cannot in all (good) conscience do something, you cannot do it because you think it is wrong:
I couldn't in all conscience tell him that his job was safe.
|| Your verdict must be unanimous.
|| unanimous decision, vote, agreement etc is one in which all the people involved agree: It was decided by a unanimous vote that the school should close.
|| The bench will not entertain a recommendation for mercy.
|| BENCH the seat where a judge or magistrate sits in a court of law: Would the prisoner please approach the bench?
ENTERTAIN (FML) consider an idea etc, or allow yourself to think that something might happen or be true: She could never entertain the idea of living in the country.
MERCY someone shows mercy, they choose to forgive or to be kind to someone who they have the power to hurt or punish: Heshowed no mercy to his enemies. The boy was screaming and begging for mercy.
|| The death sentence is mandatory in this case.
|| if something is MANDATORY, the law says it must be done:
Crash helmets are mandatory for motorcyclists.
|| You are faced with a grave responsibility.
|| you face or are faced with a difficult situation, or if a difficult situation faces you, it is going to affect you and you must deal with it:
The Presidentfaces the difficulttask of putting the economy back on its feet.
McManus isfacing the biggestchallenge of his career.
I was faced with the awful job of breaking the news to the girl's family.
|| The jury will now retire.
|| go away to consider whether someone is guilty or not
|| It never occurred to me.
|| if an idea or thought occurs to you, it suddenly comes into your mind:
It never seems to occur to my children to contact me.
It had never occurred to him that he might be falling in love with her.
|| vote by ballot
|| a system of voting, usually in secret, or an occasion when you vote in this way: The party leader is elected bysecret ballot.
|| an open-and-shut case
|| a legal case or other matter that is easy to prove or decide because the facts are very clear
|| I guess theyíre entitled.
|| give someone the official right to do or have something:
Full-time employees are entitled to receive health insurance.
|| Iíd slap those tough kids down before they start any trouble.
|| SLAP DOWN to rudely tell someone that their suggestions, questions, ideas etc are stupid TOUGH likely to behave violently and having no gentle qualities: one of football's most notorious tough guys tough young thugs looking for trouble
|| Gee, I donít know.
|| (esp.AmE) used to show that you are surprised or annoyed [↪ wow]: Aw, gee, Mom, do we have to go?
|| I figured us for an assault or burglary.
|| the crime of physically attacking someone:
a case of robbery and assault
|| Woolworth Building
|| one of the oldest skyscrapers in New York City. More than a century after the start of its construction, it remains, at 57 stories, one of the fifty tallest buildings in the United States as well as one of the twenty tallest buildings in New York City.
|| You horn works. Now try your lights.
|| (as if about a car)
|| -You got a seat on the exchange?
-Iím a broker.
-I run a messenger service.
|| = stock exchange
= courier service
|| prosecuting attorney
|| (AmE) a lawyer
|| Kids run wild up there. Maybe it serves them right.
|| (SP) used to say that you think someone deserves something unpleasant that happens to them, because they have been stupid or unkind: 'She kicked me!' 'Serves you right, teasing her like that.'
|| Yankee Ė Baltimore
|| (baseball teams)
|| Thatís like being hit in the head with a crowbar once a day.
|| a heavy iron bar used to lift something or force it open
|| a groundkeeper
|| someone who maintains the grounds (of an estate or park or athletic field)
|| I didnít mean to keep you waiting.
|| (=It was not my intention to keep you waiting).
|| I think itís customary to take a preliminary vote.
|| happening before something that is more important, often in order to prepare for it: thepreliminary stages of the competition
|| Ösend the accused to the chair
|| It has to be twelve to one, either way.
|| He stabbed his own fatherÖ
|| to push a knife into someone or something: He wasstabbed to death in a fight.
|| Do you really think heís innocent?
|| (=not guilty)
|| He was born in a slum.
|| house or an area of a city that is in very bad condition, where very poor people live: the slums of London
|| He lived in an orphanage.
|| a large house where children who are orphans live and are taken care of: He was raised in an orphanage.
|| His father was serving a jail term for forgery.
|| the crime of copying official documents, money etc
|| We donít owe him anything. He got a fair trial.
|| a fair situation, system, way of treating people, or judgment seems reasonable, acceptable, and right [≠ unfair]:
£150 is a fair price.
|| an ignorant man
|| not knowing facts or information that you ought to know:
an ignorant and uneducated man
Political historians are often rather ignorant of economics.
|| Itís not Sunday. We donít need a sermon.
|| a talk given as part of a Christian church service, usually on a religious or moral subject
|| ďThe breakfast with the built-in bounceĒ
|| 1. the action of moving up and down on a surface:
Try to catch the ball on the second bounce.
2.a lot of energy that someone has:
Exercise is great. I feel like there's a new bounce in my step.
|| a catchy line
-a catching illness -a catching emotion: Julia's enthusiasm was catching.
|| a catchy tune or phrase is easy to remember:
|| I have a habit of doodling.
|| to draw shapes, lines, or patterns without really thinking about what you are doing: Brad was doodling on a sheet of paper.
|| Itís up to us to convince this gentleman.
|| to make someone feel certain that something is true:
Baker had to convince jurors that his client had been nowhere near the scene of the murder.
|| It was obvious from the word go.
|| from the start of something: I knew from the word go that she was going to cause problems.
|| Nobody has to prove otherwise.
|| to say, think, or decide something different:
The government claims that the economy is improving, but this survey suggests otherwise.
A lot of people think otherwise.
|| an official whose job is to discover the cause of someone's death, especially if they died in a sudden or unusual way:
The coroner recorded a verdict of death by natural causes.
|| You canít refute facts.
|| to prove that a statement or idea is not correct: an attempt to refute Darwin's theories
|| His entire story was flimsy.
|| a flimsy argument or excuse does not seem very likely and people do not believe it [≠ convincing]: Theevidence against him is extremelyflimsy.
|| The time is 12.10 on the nose. Everything fits.
|| exactly right, often an exact amount of money or time: We arrived at three o'clock on the nose. Her description of the play really hit it on the nose.
|| el tracks
|| = elevated train in Chicago
|| She swore she saw him do it. *swear-swore-sworn
|| to make a public official promise, especially in a court of law:
Witnesses have to swear on the Bible.
|| The el train was being moved downtown.
|| to or in the centre or main business area of a town or city [↪ uptown]: I have togo downtown later.
|| Violence is a normal state of affairs with him.
|| (FML) a situation:
I must say this is a very unsatisfactory state of affairs.
|| commit a murder
|| two slaps in the face
|| a quick hit with the flat part of your hand:
Juliagave Roy aslap on the cheek.
|| He was in reform school.
|| (AmE) a special school where young people who have broken the law are sent: If you're not careful, you'll end up in reform school.
|| Heís been arrested for mugging.
|| an attack on someone in which they are robbed in a public place: Dudley was the victim of a violent mugging.
|| Heís very handy with a knife.
|| good at using something, especially a tool: He's very handy with a screwdriver.
|| the hand when it is tightly closed, so that the fingers are curled in towards the palm. People close their hand in a fist when they are angry or are going to hit someone:
She held the money tightly in her fist.
Malcolmclenched hisfist (=held his fist very tightly closed) angrily.
|| I was so embarrassed I almost threw up.
|| = vomitted
|| This boy is the product of Öa filthy neighborhood. We canít help that.
|| used to say that there is nothing you can do to change a bad situation: She said she had to leave him for a while; it couldn't be helped.
|| Children from slums are potential menaces to society.
|| something or someone that is dangerous [= threat]:
It's the only way to deal with the menace of drug dealing.
|| The defence wasnít conducting a thorough enough cross-examination.
|| including every possible detail: The doctor gave him a thorough check-up.
|| If I were on trial for my life, Iíd want my lawyer to tear the prosecution witnesses to shreds.
|| to criticize someone very severely:
Within a year, other researchers had torn the theory to shreds. *shred: a small thin piece that is torn or cut roughly from something: a shred of paper
|| There was one alleged eyewitness to this killing.
|| an alleged crime, fact etc is one that someone says has happened or is true, although it has not been proved
Thealleged victim made the complaint at a police station in York.
|| circumstantial evidence
|| based on something that appears to be true but is not proven:
The case against McCarthy is based largely on circumstantial evidence.
|| They were under oath.
|| a formal promise to tell the truth in a court of law: The evidence was given under oath.
|| a switch(blade) knife:
a carved handle and blade
|| to make an object or pattern by cutting a piece of wood or stone: carved wooden chairs
|| The boy admitted buying the knife.
|| to agree unwillingly that something is true or that someone else is right:
You may not like her, but youhave to admit that she's good at her job.
|| Thereís a difference between ďslapĒ and ďpunchĒ.
|| to hit someone or something hard with your fist (=closed hand): He punched me and knocked my teeth out.
|| The boy began to diverge slightly from the story.
|| if opinions, interests etc diverge, they are different from each other Here his views diverged from hers.
|| The odds are a million to one.
|| how likely it is that something will or will not happen:
The odds are (=it is likely) that he will commit the same crime again.
|| Someone send for a pinochle deck.
|| an American card game
|| I got three garages going to pot.
|| (INFML) if something such as a place or an organization goes to pot, it becomes much worse or fails because no one is taking care of it: The government haslet the whole countrygo to pot.
|| a district attorney
|| a lawyer in the US who works for the government in a particular area and who is responsible for bringing people who may be criminals to court
|| I want you to vote by secret written ballot.
|| BALLOT a system of voting, usually in secret, or an occasion when you vote in this way:
The party leader is elected bysecret ballot.
ABSTAIN to choose not to vote for or against something:
Six countries voted for the change, five voted against, and two abstained.
|| A golden-voiced preacher tears your heart out.
|| someone who talks about a religious subject in a public place, especially at a church
|| Why donít you drop a quarter in his collection box?
|| a coin used in the US and Canada worth 25 cents
|| Heís very excitable.
|| becoming excited too easily:
A puppy is naturally affectionate and excitable.
|| He gambled for support and I gave it to him.
|| to do something that involves a lot of risk, and that will not succeed unless things happen the way you would like them to:
We can't relax our safety standards - we'd be gambling with people's lives.
|| We are hung up here.
a hung jury
|| (INFML) to be thinking or worrying too much about someone or something A HUNG JURY cannot agree whether someone is guilty of a crime
|| an ad agency
|| = an advertising agency
|| I didnít mean to get nasty.
|| intend to do smth: I didn't mean to upset you.
|| You know where the soft sell is.
|| a way of advertising or selling things that involves gently persuading people to buy something
|| I made 27 grand last year selling marmalade.
|| a thousand pounds or dollars: The car cost him fifteen grand.
|| Youíre wastiní your time. You ought to wrap it up.
|| (INFML) to finish a job, meeting etc: We're hoping to wrap up the negotiations this week.
|| Did you see him? The nerve!(He had the nerve to do it!)
|| (SP) if you say someone has a nerve, you mean that they have done something unsuitable or impolite, without seeming to be embarrassed about behaving in this way: He'sgot a nerve asking for more money. 'She didn't say sorry or anything.' 'What a nerve!í She lets me do all the work, and then she has the nerve to criticize my cooking.
|| a split second later
|| an extremely short period of time:
For a split second the two men hesitated.
|| He yelled at the top of his voice.
|| to shout or say something very loudly, especially because you are frightened, angry, or excited: 'Help me!' she yelled hysterically.
|| It stands to reason he couldnít have heard it.
|| used to say that something should be completely clear to anyone who is sensible:
It stands to reason that you cannot find the right person to do a job unless you know exactly what that job is.
|| You say stuff like that to him again, Iím gonna lay you out.
|| (INFML) to hit someone so hard that they fall down and become unconscious: One of the guards had been laid out and the other was missing.
|| The seam of his jacket was split.
|| a line where two pieces of cloth, leather etc have been stitched together:
She was repairing Billy's trousers, where the seam had come undone.
|| Does anybody want a cough drop?
|| a sweet for your cough
|| Heís a common, ignorant slob.
|| (INFML) someone who is lazy and untidy: a lazy slob
|| This isnít the living end.
|| (AmE, SP) used as an expression of slight disapproval - often used humorously: What will she do next? She's the living end!
|| Heís making up stories.
|| to produce a new story, song, game etc by thinking:
When you're the boss you can make up your own rules.
|| kooky detective magazines
|| (AmE, INFML) someone who is silly or crazy
|| Lawyers arenít infallible.
|| always right and never making mistakes [≠ fallible]:
No expert is infallible.
an infallible memory
|| Ösitting ringside at the Dempsey-Firpo fight*Ö
* a historical boxing fight
|| the area nearest to the performance in a circus, a boxing match etc
|| The old man had a stroke.
|| if someone has a stroke, an artery (=tube carrying blood) in their brain suddenly bursts or becomes blocked, so that they may die or be unable to use some muscles: I looked after my father after he had a stroke.
|| bullying a helpless old man
|| to threaten to hurt someone or frighten them, especially someone smaller or weaker
|| We can spare 15 seconds.
|| make something such as time, money, or workers available for someone, especially when this is difficult for you to do:
Sorry, Ican't spare thetime.
I'd like you to come over when you can spare a couple of hours.
Can you spare £5?
|| Come on, knock it off.
|| (SP) used to tell someone to stop doing something, because it is annoying you
|| a watch with a second hand
|| ÖThis little display takes the cake.
|| (INFML) to be worse than anything else you can imagine:
I've heard some pretty dumb ideas, but that takes the cake!
|| Perhaps youíd like to pull the switch.
|| (of the electric chair)
|| a self-appointed public avenger
|| AVENGE (literary) to do something to hurt or punish someone because they have harmed or offended you: He wanted to avenge his brother's death.
|| We have nothing to gain or lose by our verdict.
|| GAIN to get an advantage from a situation, opportunity, or event
There's nothing to be gained (=it will not help you) by losing your temper.
|| If nobody else has an idea, I might have a cutie here. Letís throw it out and see if the cat licks it up.
|| someone who is attractive and nice: He is such a cutie! (Here: an interesting idea)
|| You can twist facts any way you like.
|| change the true or intended meaning of a statement, especially in order to get some advantage for yourself:
He's always trying totwist mywords and make me look bad.
|| You havenít got a leg to stand on.
|| (INFML) to be in a situation where you cannot prove or legally support what you say: If you didn't sign a contract, you won't have a leg to stand on.
|| Heís an ox, a real ox. (in a game)
|| = bull
|| I nearly bawled.(about the storm)
|| to shout in a loud voice [= yell]:
'Tickets please!' bawled the conductor.
|| Things are looking up here.
|| if a situation is looking up, it is improving [= improve, get better]: Now the summer's here things are looking up!
|| How do you like it? Even-steven.
|| EVEN to no longer owe someone something, especially money: If you give me $5, we'll be even. (EVEN + STEVEN - rhyming slang) Having an equal score, as in a game or contest
|| He was trying to bait me.
|| 1DSO to put bait on a hook to catch fish or in a trap to catch animals
2 to deliberately try to make someone angry by criticizing them, using rude names etc
|| Anyone in the right mind would blow his stack.
|| BLOW YOUR TOP/STACK (INFML) to become extremely angry quickly or suddenly: One day, I just blew my top and hit him.
|| Boy, the arrogance of this guy!
|| when someone behaves in a rude way because they think they are very important:
I couldn't believe the arrogance of the man!
|| His lawyer took great pains to bring that out.
|| to make a special effort to do something:
He's taken great pains to improve his image.
|| The boy is guilty. Period.
|| (AmE) the mark (.), used in of writing to show the end of a sentence or of an abbreviation [= full stop BrE]
|| I donít go along with it.
|| to agree with or support someone or something:
I would be happy to go along with the idea.
Often it was easier to go along with her rather than risk an argument.
|| Donít you have the guts to do what you think is right?
|| (INFML) the courage and determination you need to do something difficult or unpleasant: Ittakes guts to start a new business on your own. No-one had the guts to tell Paul what a mistake he was making.
|| The voteís nine to three in favour of acquittal.
|| an official statement in a court of law that someone is not guilty
|| You are not gonna tell me you believe that phoney story about losing the knifeÖ
|| (AmE, INFML) false or not real, and intended to deceive someone [= fake]: a phoney American accent
|| Itís difficult to keep personal prejudice out of a thing like this. It always obscures the truth.
|| PREJUDICE an unreasonable dislike and distrust of people who are different from you in some way, especially because of their race, sex, religion etc - used to show disapproval:
a cultural prejudice against fat people
Asian pupils complained of racial prejudice at the school. OBSCURE make something difficult to know or understand: Recent successes haveobscured the fact that the company is still in trouble.
|| She tossed and turned (in her bed).
|| to keep changing your position in bed because you cannot sleep: I've been tossing and turning all night.
|| You keep trying to turn this into a contest.
|| a competition or a situation in which two or more people or groups are competing with each otherCOLLOCATIONS
|| optometrist (AmE)
|| = optician (BrE)
|| You are not gonna intimidate me. Iím entilted to my opinion.
|| INTIMIDATE frighten or threaten someone into making them do what you want: They tried to intimidate the young people into voting for them. ENTITLE to give someone the official right to do or have something: Membership entitles you to the monthly journal.