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Examination tests on discipline: “Ecology and Sustainable Development” for first year students of all specialties

Students’ surname and name_______________________ Version Ñ

Department and group ____________________ Date _______________

 

1. Who coined the term "ecology"?
A). MV Lomonosov;

B). E. Haeckel;

D). Charles Darwin;

E). V.I.Vernadsky.
2. Who is the author of teaching about the biosphere?
A). MV Lomonosov,.

B). Haeckel;

C). Charles Elton;

D). Charles Darwin;

E). VI Vernadsky

3. For the first time the term "ecosystem" was introduced by:
A). Tensli A.;

B). J. von Liebig;

C). Charles Darwin;

D). E. Haeckel;

E). V. Sukachev.
4. By the abiotic environment include:
A). community of living organisms desert ecosystems;
B). temperature and humidity of air;
C). composition of plant communities of tundra ecosystems;
D). phytoplankton aquatic ecosystems;
E). population of rabbits ecosystem forest. .

5. To the biotic factors of the environment belong:
A). water chemistry and temperature regime of the aquatic ecosystem;
B). population of birds of the steppe ecosystems;

C). climatic factors;
D). depth of the aquatic ecosystem;

E). humidity of air.

6. To such a relationship between populations, as "competition", denoted combination of characters is defined as:
A). "- -";

B). "+ +";

C). "+ -";

D). "+ 0";

E). '- 0 ".

7. Tolerance - is:
A). Optimal conditions for the flourishing of the organism;
B). reaction to the excess of any environmental factor;
C). minimum factors necessary for the existence of an organism;
D). the stability limits of organisms to fluctuations in environmental factors;
E). reaction to the lack of any environmental factor.
8. According to the law, "tolerance" of V. Shelford organisms:
A). withstand any changes in environmental factors;
B). thrive in any changes to environmental factors;
C). die at any changes of environmental factors;
D). withstand changes in environmental factors within certain limits;
E). withstand only minimal changes of environmental factors.
9. The limiting factor is:
A). element of the environment, the presence of which causes the death of the body
B). Any environmental factor whose value is close to the upper or
lower limit of endurance of the body;

C). environmental factor, whose value is close to the optimum for the species
organisms;

D). element of the environment in which the presence of the organism
flourishes;
E). environmental factor in the presence of the organism which has the greatest
life expectancy.
10. Ecological succession – is:
A). sequence of communities which succeed each other;
B).simple substitution of more complex community rich in bio-
diversity;
C). stage of development;
D). replacement of climax ecosystems young (recheck cuz in Russian nothing is clear)
E). sequence of changes in species.
11. What is the role biologization production in solving environmental problems?
A). contributes to the harmonization of relations machinery with the environment;
B). determines the level of environmental pollution;
C). using specific methods and approaches;
D). has some impact on technology upgrades;
E) opens the possibility of controlling the cycles of the cycle of matter in nature protection biota of the Earth from xenobiotics.
12. Human ecology - the science that studies:
A). man's role in scientific and technological progress;
B). part of social ecology, which studies human interaction with the environment;
C). cooperation between society and nature;
D). physiological capabilities of man in different ecological situations;
E). human health under extreme conditions.
13. Ethnological and precipitating factors of human diseases:
A). change in mean daily air temperatures;



B). natural disasters;

C). environmental pollution;
D). emotional stress;

E). socio-economic situation.
14. The population explosion - is:
A). increase the population growth of the Earth;

B). increase in the population of the elderly;
C). reproduction of the population;

D). periodic sharp increase in population associated with improvement socio- economic conditions;
E). loss of economic need for children.
15. The first metropolis of the world is:
A). Most of Calcutta;

B). Mexico City;

C). Tokyo;

D). Moscow;

E). BosVash.
16. Wastewater treatment methods used are:
A). mechanical and biological;

B). biological;

C). chemical and mechanical;


D). biological and mechanical;

E). mechanical, chemical and biological.
17. Under the Reclamation is understood the complex of works:
A).rehabilitation of disturbed soil fertility and the return of the land in agricultural use;
B). engineering;

C). mining;

D). control of soil erosion;

E). land reclamation.
18. The total environmental damage - is:
A). loss of productivity of the forest;

B). the cost of maintaining green spaces;
C). transportation costs for delivery of the crop;

D). insurance of human life;
E). additional costs associated with the restoration of health and health of the population, crop losses, productivity of water bodies and forests, the aftermath of fires and other disasters.
19. According to the Law on Environmental Protection of RK who is responsible for production monitoring?
A). specially authorized state bodies;

B). entities - of natural resources;

C). Inspector for Environmental Protection;

D). regional environmental prosecutor;
E). maslichat
20. The basic principle of international cooperation in the sphere of Conduct Environmental Protection in RK:
A). noninterference in internal affairs of neighboring states;

B). mutual interests;
C). compliance with the priority of general environmental safety;

D). mutual cooperation;
E). exchange of environmental information.
21. Ecology - the science that studies:
A). basic laws governing the functioning of genes;
B). The effect of nutrition on the health;

C). Geographical shell of the Earth;

D). Formation of different types of climate;

E). Patterns of relationships of organisms with their environment

22. Relationship between populations as the "predation" is marked by signs:
A). "+ +";

C). "+ -";

D). "+ 0";

E). '- 0 ".

23. The essence of the "rules of the minimum" of Libikh is that if:
A). All the necessary environmental factors for the development of the body, are within the minimum, then the body feels optimal;
B). All the environmental factors necessary for the development of the body, are within the minimum, the organism thrives;
C). All the environmental factors for a long time are in the zone of optimum, then the body dies;
D). At least one of the environmental factors beyond the minimum (less than the minimum), the body dies;
E). Organisms need to flourish at least the major environmental factors.

24. A relationship between populations as "commensalism," is marked by signs:
À) «- -»

B). "+ +";

C). "+ -";

D). "+ 0";

E). '- 0 ".

25. The concentration function of living matter of the biosphere is to:
A). Mineral rock decay;
B). Accumulation in the bodies of organisms of the atoms, substances dispersed in nature;
C) Converting light energy into chemical energy;
D). Transfer of nutrients through a series of organisms;
E). Transfer of energy through a series of organisms.
26. Who presented works brought below for the first time as ecology the science of the general relations of organisms to the environment?
A). Aristotle;

B). JB Lamarck;

C). KF Roulier;

D). Ernst Haeckel;

E). Alexander von Humboldt.

27. Biological process in which light energy is converted to and accumulated in the cell, called:
A). Breathing;

B). Reproduction;

C). Photosynthesis;

D). Division;

E). Migration.

28. Biological process in which nutrients are oxidized, is called:
A). Breathing;

B). Reproduction;

C). Photosynthesis;

D). Division;

E). Migration.

29. Which functional group contains bacteria and fungi in the biocenosis?
A). Consumers;

B). Decomposers;

C). Producer;

D). Predators;

E). Phototrophs.

30. Which functional group includes animals in the biocenosis?
A). Consumers;

B). Decomposers;

C). Producer;

D). Autotrophs;

E). Phototrophs.
31. International program devoted to the most acute problems of the ecological crisis (desertification of the planet, land degradation, disforest, pollution of fresh water, etc.):
A). MAB - "Man and the Biosphere" by UNESCO, 1970;
B). IUCN - The "International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources", UNESCO, 1948;
C). FAO - the organization of protection of forests and wildlife;
D). UNEP - International Program - 2 United Nations Environment Programme, 1972;
E). WHO - World Health Organization.
32. . Sustainable development is:
A). Stable economic development
B). Stable ecological development
C). Stable and social development
D). Economic development without detriment to the nature
E). Stable and cultural development
33. Stage monitoring - the basic level of collection of primary data:
A). Local (sanitary);

B). Regional;

C). Global;

D). Nature-economic;

E). Biosphere.
34. Man-made anthropogenic impacts on the biota - is:
A). The impact of road transport;

B). The impact of built-up floor type;

C). Nuclear test site;
D). Livestock farm;

E). Mining and industrial complex.
35. The most common classification of human to the anthropogenic impact is:
A). The degree of exposure;

B). The depth of exposure;

C). Ty type of economic activity;
D) At the time of exposure;

E). Reversible and irreversible.
36. The level of traffic noise produced by heavy truck (dB):
A). 100;

B) 170;

 

C). 70;

D). 40;

E). 20.
37. Environmental noise - is:
A). Improvement of hearing on the motion of automobiles;
B) A form of pollution, which consists in increasing the noise level in excess of natural background;
C). Phenomenon, acting negatively on living organisms and humans;
D). Phenomenon caused by the action of the railways;
E). Pain in the noise associated with the action of compressor stations.
38. Environmental noise occurs during the functioning of household:
A). Gas turbine power plants;

B). Passenger cars;

C). Vacuum cleaner;
D). Bulldozer;

E). Excavator.
39. Allowable traffic noise in the walls of houses in the afternoon (dB):
A). 70;

B) 100;

C). 20;

D). 50;

E). 30.
40. The basic unit of activity decay of the radioactive material is:
A). REM;

B). X-ray (R) - rad;

C). Pendant;

D). J / kg;

E). Ku (Ci).

 


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 365


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