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solomon dodaSvilis pedagogiuri ideebi

XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi moRvaweobda solomon dodaSvili, gamoCenili sazogado moRvawe, filosofosi da pedagogi; is im qarTvelTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, romlTa cxovrebiseul mizansac saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgena warmoadgenda.

solomon dodaSvili daibada siRnaRis maxloblad, sofel maRaroSi, 1805 wels. swavlobda siRnaRisa da Tbilisis sasuliero saswavleblebSi. Tbilisis saminariis dasrulebis Semdeg gaagzavnes siRnaRis sasuliero-samrevlo skolis maswavleblad. Mmas surda umaRlesi sauniversiteto ganaTlebis miReba. am mizniT da peterburgSi mcxovrebi bagrationebi daxmarebis imediT “Tvrameti vercxlis maneTiT jibeSi” gaemgzavra peterburgSi, sadac bagrat batoniSvilis saxlSi cxovrobda da mis Svilebs aswavlida. peterburgSi yofnisas dodaSvils daxmarebas uwevda moZRvari iona xelaSvili. iona solomons Tavis mowafes uwodebda, xolo solomoni ionas – maswavlebels. peterburgSi man Caabara saimperatoro

universitetis filosofia-iurispudenciis fakultetze. universitetSi gatarebul periodSi Camoyalibda misi filosofiuri msoflmxedveloba.

solomon dodaSvili gaecno kantisa da misi mimdevrebis naazrevs. Mman Seiswavla da originalurad gaiazra kantis moZRvreba. ris Sedegadac man Tavisufali arsebis arsebobis WeSmarit samefod, aseve sakacobrio kulturis ganviTarebis saboloo miznad mSvidoba dasaxa. Mmisi azriT, adamianis srulyofili ganviTarebisa da amqveyniuri daniSnulebis Sesasrulebelad aucilebelia im sazogadoebis Tavisufleba, romelSic adamiani cxovrobs.

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kantis garda solomon dodaSvilis msoflmxedvelobis formirebaze didi gavlena moaxdina dekabristulma moZraobam. is daeswro maT gamosvlasa da maTi sikvdiliT dasjis mowmec gaxda. dodaSvili ecnoboda dekabristTa nawerebsac. mniSvnelovania isic, rom is peterburgSi mcxovreb qarTvel bagrationebs daukavSirda, romlebic mtrulad iyvnen ganwyobili ruseTis politikis mimarT.

peterburgSi yofnisas daiwera misi cnobili naSromi „loRika“. naSromi rusul enaze daibeWda, qarTuli egzemplari ki daikarga. „loRika“ qarTulad 1949 wels iTargmna. am filosofiurma Txzulebam saxeli gauTqva avtors. solomon dodaSvilis azriT, filosofiis obieqti aris adamiani Sinagani samyaro anu „samyaro CvenSi“, rasac mWidrod ukavSirebs materialur samyaros.Llogikis obieqtad miiCnevs „gonebisa da azrovnebis sayovelTao da ucvlel kanonebs“. Mman logikidan da saerTod, filosofiidan gamoricxa zebunebrivi Zala da sinamdvilis Semecnebis erTaerT gzad asaxva daasaxela.

solomon dodaSvils ekuTvnis naSromi „ritorika“, sadac ganxilulia esTeTikis problematika. Aavtori xelovnebis Teoriis sakiTxebs da miiCnevs, rom xelovnebaSi ZiriTadia Sinaarsi da ara forma. Sinaarsi ki ganpirobebulia obieqturi sinamdviliT. Mmisi azriT, SemoqmedisaTvis aucilebelia ganaTleba, WeSmaritebis siyvaruli, bunebrivi monacemebi, didi mgrZnobiaroba.

am naSromSi aRniSnavs, rom adamianis mTavar niSan-Tvisebad „ganaTlebuli goneba da ganviTarebuli guli“ miaCnia. amisaTvis ki mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs „zneobiT filosofiur swavlans“, aseve „maTematikur“ da „politikur swavlans“.

solomon dodaSvili harmoniuli aRzrda-ganaTlebis ideas iziarebda da amas Semdegnairad asabuTebda: „vinc adamians dakvirvebia, man icis, rom igi miiltvis harmoniisken Tavisi bunebiT, Seuwyvetlad eZebs mas agreTve gare bunebaSic“. adamianTa harmoniuli ganviTareba moaqvs „garkveul adamianuri codnis sistemis“ dauflebas. rac niSnavs,



 

mecnierebebis Rrmad SeTvisebas. solomon dodaSvili mecnierebas gansazRvravs rogorc codnaTa sistemas, rasac upirispirebs „nawyvet-nawyvet Semecnebas“. codna, misi azriT, „aravisTvis ar aris Tandayolili; is SeZenil unda iqnas sakuTari gonebis ZaliT, sakuTari moRvaweobiT.“

solomon dodaSvilis wvlili didia qarTuli gramatikis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. man Seqmna gramatikis saxelmZRvanelo „Semoklebuli qarTuli Rramatika“. es saxelmZRvanelo „loRikasaTan“ erTad ZiriTad saxelmZRvaneloebad gamoiyeneboda Tbilisis gimnaziaSi.

Ppeterburgidan dabrunebuli solomon dodaSvili muSaobas iwyebs Tbilisis keTilSobilTa saswavleblis qarTuli enis, logikis, ritorikis da geografiis maswavleblad. 1828 wels misi redaqtorobiT gamodis qarTuli gazeTi „tfilisis uwyebani“, 1832 wels ki misi literaturuli damateba „saliteraturo nawilni tfilisis uwyebaTani“. „tfilisis uwyebanSi“ daibeWda solomon dodaSvilis literaturuli nawarmoebebi, romelTagan aRsaniSnavia „mokle ganxilva qarTuli literaturisa anu sityvierebisa“. masSi avtori gamoTqvams azrs, rom qarTul enasa da damwerlobas SeuZlia Targmna Tu aRwera „TviT umciresisa azrisa da grZnobisa.“ Aam statiaSi Cans, avtoris mosazreba ganaTlebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT: „ganaTleba aris umtkicesi da uusaimedoesi safuZveli keTilmdgomareobisa yovelisa sazogadoebisa:

yovelman uwyis, romel sazogadoeba, Semdgari keTilaRzrdilTa wevrTagan, Seiqmnebis gawmendils wyarod saerTo keTilmoqmedebiTa, didebisa da SemZleblobisa“.

Mmisi azriT, ganaTlebis gareSe SeuZlebelia qarTveli xalxis momavali bednieri cxovreba. „swavlaTa Sina... mamuli Cveni moelis bednierebasa“.

solomon dodaSvili peterburgSi yofnis periodSi erTerT werilSi iona xelaSvils swers: „vikreb sibrZnesa mamulisaTvis, ara Tavisi TavisaTvis mxolod, ginda bednierebisaTvis vmuSakob, aramed

 

siyvarulisaTvis mamulisa, raTa evropaman odesme scnos iveria saSualebiT werilTa sarwmunoTa“.

solomon dodaSvili udidesi siyvaruliT iyo gamsWvaluli samSoblosadmi. Aamitomac gvevlineba is 1832 wlis SeTqmulebis aqtiur wevrad. Mmisi azriT, saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis aRdgena sazogadoebis mdgomareobas Secvlida. Sesabamisad, Seicvleboda masSi mcxovrebi pirovnebebis cxovrebis wesi. mas miaCnda, rom damonebul sazogadoebaSi ver gaizrdeba Tavisuflebis moyvare da WeSmaritebis moyvaruli adamiani.

 

gamoyenebuli literatura:

 

saqarTvelos istoria, XIX saukune, artanuji, 2004 w.

qarTuli pedagogikis istoria, ganaTleba, 1974 w.

pedagogikis istoria, ganaTleba, 1988 w.

TavziSvili g. rCeuli pedagogiuri Txzulebani, Tbilisi, 1974 w. t. I.

TevzaZe g. solomon dodaSvili, diogene, 2005 w.

 

 


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 177


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